Mechanism of Patent Search
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Inside the prior art search
Overview of patent searchingDevelop a patent prior art Search StrategyDetermine type of patent search to be conducted. Formulate patent search terms/search queries Determine databases to be searched. Conduct patent search of sufficient breadth and scope for invention. Extraction and analysis of search result Preparation of search report
Patent Search methodology
Types of patent search mechanismsThere are 3 basic types of patent search mechanisms:
Classification searching - International Patent Classification (IPC), European Classification (ECLA), Current US Classification (USPC)
Text searching - Patent number, application number, publication number, priority number ,Inventor or assignee (applicant)/Company and Organization Names, keywords in (title, abstract, description, claims).Citation searching - is a review of the documents cited by a patent of interest, as well as a review of the documents citing the patent of interest.
Conducting patent searchSyntax Keyword Searching Advanced Keyword Syntax and Techniques Boolean operators logic Nested Queries/Creating queries with Parentheses or Brackets Phrase searching Proximity Searching Word Stemming Search Term Weighting Wildcards/truncation Date Range Searching Class/subclass searching( IPC, USPC, ECLA) Assessing Search Results
Syntax-Is the search language for the database you are using -Different search engines rarely use the exact same search language. -Same syntax query in two different databases may give no result or erroneous results
Keyword searchingDone from (Title, abstract, claims) On the basis of -what is the invention -what does the invention do? -what application/problem does it solve?
Boolean operatorsBoolean operators help you combine words or phrases to broaden or narrow your search.Boolean Operator AND Example Mobile and Telephone Function Finds documents which have both mobile and telephone Finds documents which have either mobile or telephone or both Finds documents which have only mobile. The NOT operator excludes telephone completely
Mobile or Telephone
Mobile not Telephone
Order of precedence for Boolean operators is: NOT>AND>OR
Nested Queries/Creating queries with Parentheses or BracketsEncloses search terms and their operators in parentheses or brackets Helps to specify the order in which they should be processed. The order of precedence for parenthesis and Boolean operators is: 1. Parentheses 2. NOT 3. AND 4. OR
Nested query Hair and dye or colorant (one or two and layer) and insulation
How it is interpreted (following order of precedence) (Hair and dye) or colorant (one or (two and layer)) and insulation
Phrase searchingThis means two or more words entered without commas or other operators will be treated as a unit a phrase when the search is performed
Search syntax... relational database
Phrase searching Result set includes...
relational databaserelational databases related databases relational databases method for querying multiple, distributed databases by selective sharing of local relative... method relating to databases database relational extenders
(relational AND database)
Proximity searchingFinds words that are near each other, rather than a literal phrase in which the words must be right next to each other .Helps to specify how near/distant you want your search terms to be.Proximity operator "~"/ "~n" Query Results Documents with both enzyme and peptide, where both are within 3 words of each other
(inorganic Documents with word inorganic near solvents) claims solvent with next 10 words will be shown. (inorganic solvents) claims Documents with word inorganic near solvent with next 10 words will be shown but inorganic will precede solvent.
Proximity searching contd..Proximity operator Query Result/Function monoclonal title Documents with monoclonal word in the title will be shown Monoclonal antibody Terms appear in the order specified next to Term1 ADJ Term2 one another or within a prescribed number Term1 ADJ3 Term2 of words of one another. Terms appear in the same sentence. Terms appear in the same paragraph.
Disease Detection Antigen Glycoprotein
Word stemmingIs a language related tool, which determines the root of a word first, and then retrieves all possible variants.Search term Compose Word stemming On (searches for variants of compose) Off (searches for exact word) On (searches for variants of compose) Matching results would have the words Compose, composes, composed, composing, composable, composition etc Composition Composition, Compositions, Compose, composes, composed, composing, composable etc.
Search term weighingHelps you to tell the search engine which term is more important, and how important it is over the other term.Query Interpretation
DNA^5 or RNA
DNA is 5 times more important to the relevancy of documents than RNA. Finds all documents with either DNA or RNA, or both, but all other factors remaining the same, rank documents with DNA higher Patent on toothbrush holders are twice as important as any other kinds of holders. The no. enclosed in brackets corresponds to the weightage of the term.
((toothbrush AND holder) OR holder)
Wildcards/truncationAllows you to retrieve documents containing variations of a search term. Wildcard symbols can be used to replace a single letter or a part of a word, or one or more numbers.Wildcard Query Result
? ? **
carbo? Analy?e carbo*carbo*ate
carbon ,carbox ,carboy Analyse and Analyze carbon ,carbonate ,carbonated ,carbohydrate ,carbonyl ,carboxylic ,Carborane ,carbonlesscarbonate ,carbohydrate ,carboxylate-sulfate carboxydiketonate ,carbocysteinate carboxysulfonate ,carbothiolate carboxylic-acid-amidothiolcarbamate
Date Range SearchingAllows you to define or restrict the dates of your search. The most preferred format is YYYY-MM-DD. Generally done using mathematical symbols like(< ,> , = ). Query (Canon PA) AND (image TI) AND (PD1988-12-31 AND PD