Measures to Promote the Situation of Roma EU Citizens in the EU

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Transcript of Measures to Promote the Situation of Roma EU Citizens in the EU




Measures to promote the situation of Roma EU citizens in the European UnionSTUDYAbstractThe study presents a critical assessment of the national action plans, measures and instruments designed to promote the situation of Roma EU citizens in the EU, focusing on six new and six old member states. It identifies the legal instruments and policies which can be used and put in place at the EU level, outlines the elements of a European Strategy for Roma Inclusion, and presents practical policy recommendations for the facilitation of Roma integration in the EU.

PE 432.747


This document was requested by the European Parliament's Committee on Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs.

AUTHORS Dr. William BARTLETT (London School of Economics and Political Science, UK) Dr. Roberta BENINI (Nomisma Institute of Economic Research, Bologna, Italy) Dr. Claire GORDON (London School of Economics and Political Science, UK)

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF Laura CASHMAN (Canterbury Christ Church University, UK) Sarah CEMLYN (University of Bristol, UK) Joan COSTA-I-FONT (London School of Economics and Political Science, UK) Moise FLORIN (Soros Foundation, Bucharest, Romania) Johan GABRIELSSON (Brussels) Gregor GRIENIG (Berlin-Institute for Population and Development, Berlin, Germany) Argyris MAMARELIS (London School of Economics and Political Science, UK) Georgios NIARCHOS (London School of Economics and Political Science, UK) Voicu OVIDIU (Soros Foundation, Bucharest, Romania) Dimitris PAPADIMITRIOU (University of Manchester, UK) Christophe ROBERT (Dlgu gnral adjoint de la Fondation Abb Pierre, Paris, France) Andrew RYDER (University of Portsmouth, UK) Cace SORIN (Soros Foundation, Bucharest, Romania) Daniela TARNOVSCHI (Soros Foundation, Bucharest, Romania) Todor TODOROV (University of National and World Economy, Sofia) Kyriaki TOPIDI (University of Lucerne, Switzerland) Peter VERMEERSCH (University of Leuven, Belgium) Erzsebet VAJODOVICH-VISY (University of Technology and Economics of Budapest, Hungary)

RESPONSIBLE ADMINISTRATOR Mr Jean-Louis ANTOINE-GREGOIRE Policy Department C: Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs European Parliament B-1047 Bruxelles E-mail:


ABOUT THE EDITOR To contact the Policy Department or to subscribe to its newsletter please write to: Manuscript completed in January 2011. Brussels, European Parliament, 2011. This document is available on the Internet at: DISCLAIMER The opinions expressed in this document are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily represent the official position of the European Parliament. Reproduction and translation for non-commercial purposes are authorized, provided the source is acknowledged and the publisher is given prior notice and sent a copy.

Measures to promote the situation of Roma EU citizens in the European Union

CONTENTSCONTENTS LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF TABLES EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. Introduction1.1. Social exclusion 1.2. Territorial specificities 1.3. Minority status

3 6 6 7 3940 42 44

2. The institutional framework for policy design at national level 512.1. Multi-level governance arrangements 2.2. National institutional and policy frameworks2.2.1. 2.2.2. New Member States Old Member States

52 5556 66

3. Education policies3.1. Institutional and legal framework for Roma Education 3.2. Measures and Instruments: Overview3.2.1. 3.2.2. 3.3.1. 3.3.2. Access and retention Improvements in the quality of education New Member States Old Member States

7273 7374 74

3.3. Country experiences in education policy

7475 91

3.4. Critical assessment of education policies: overview 3.5. The EU Policy Context

103 105

3.6. Best practice and policy success in promoting Roma Education 107

4. Employment policies4.1. Institutional and legal framework for Roma employment 4.2. Measures and instruments for employment: overview 4.3. Country experiences in employment policy4.3.1. 4.3.2. New Member States Old Member States

108110 110 113113 128


Policy Department C: Citizens rights and constitutional affairs

4.4. The EU Policy Context 4.5. Critical assessment of the employment policies: overview

137 139

4.6. Best practice and policy success in promoting Roma employment 140

5. Housing policies5.1. Institutional and legal framework for housing 5.2. Measures and instruments 5.3. Country Experience in Housing5.3.1. 5.3.2. New Member States Old Member States

143144 145 146146 154

5.4. Overall policy assessment 5.5. The EU policy context 5.6. Best practices in housing policy

160 161 162

6. Health policies6.1. Institutional and legal framework 6.2. Measures and instruments 6.3. Country Experience in Health6.3.1. 6.3.2. New Member States Old Member States

166167 169 169169 177

6.4. Overall policy assessment 6.5. The EU policy context 6.6. Best practices in health policy

182 183 184

7. Available EU legal instruments7.1. Compliance mechanisms 7.2. Social policy under the Lisbon Treaty 7.3. Legal instruments available at EU level7.3.1. 7.3.2. 7.3.3. Legal Instruments Evaluation of EU legal framework The Open Method of Coordination and EU Soft Law

185186 186 187187 189 189

8. The European policy frameworK8.1. Policy actors 8.2. Policy networks 8.3. Financial tools8.3.1. Structural Funds

190191 193 196196


Measures to promote the situation of Roma EU citizens in the European Union

8.3.2. 8.3.3. 8.3.4.

Cohesion Policy Agricultural Funds for Rural Development Community Programmes

199 200 200

9. Policy recommendations9.1. An integrated approach 9.2. The policy process9.2.1. 9.2.2. Capacity-building at national, regional and level levels Improving institutional coordination

201201 203203 204

9.2.3. Upgrading existing institutional structures or founding a European Agency for Roma inclusion 204 9.2.4. 9.2.5. 9.2.6. 9.3.1. 9.3.2. 9.3.3. 9.3.4. 9.3.5. 9.4.1. 9.4.2. 9.4.3. 9.4.4. 9.4.5. 9.4.6. 9.4.7. 9.4.8. 9.5.1. 9.5.2. 9.5.3. 9.6.1. 9.6.2. A budget line for Roma inclusion Monitoring and evaluation Structural Funds and the funding of Roma inclusion measures Improving access to education Raising the quality of education Educating and including Roma women the gender dimension Developing a technology-enhanced education agenda Education and the EU Context Direct employment measures and temporary employment Active labour market policies Self-employment and business start-up Local economic development Land and agriculture Capacity building in employment offices Gender and equal opportunity measures EU Structural Funds projects Improved fixed housing provision Improving the provision of halting sites Housing provision and accessing EU funding Health care provision Improvement sanitary conditions 206 206 206

9.3. Practical policy recommendations: education

206207 207 208 209 209

9.4. Practical policy recommendations: employment

210211 211 211 212 212 213 213 213

9.5. Practical policy recommendations: housing

214214 214 215

9.6. Practical policy recommendations: health

215215 216

9.7. The territorial dimension horizontal measures 9.8. Supporting conditions for European policy effectiveness9.8.1. 9.8.2. 9.8.3. Data Collection Public awareness campaigns Promotion of legal awareness

216 217217 218 218


Policy Department C: Citizens rights and constitutional affairs



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONSBG CoE CZ ES FR DE EL HU NMS OMC OMS IT PL RO SK UK Bulgaria Council of Europe Czech Republic Spain France Germany Greece Hungary New Member States Open Method of Coordination Old Member States Italy Poland Romania Slovakia United Kingdom

LIST OF TABLESTable 1: Poverty rates among Roma and Non-Roma houselhods, 2000................... 40 Table 2: Key points on legal rights of Roma as national minority ........................... 45 Table 3: State organisation of the 12 countries of the study ................................. 53 Table 4: Policy measures to promote Roma employment by country ...................... 111 Table 5: The common basic principles for Roma inclusion..................................... 195 Table 6: EU funding available for Roma: ESF interventions 2007-2013................... 198


Measures to promote the situation of Roma EU citizens in the European Union

EXECUTIVE SUMMARYBackground The Roma EU citizens are one of the most marginalised groups in the EU, facing deep and intractable social problems related to low levels of education, high unemployment, inadequate housing, poor health, and wide-ranging discrimination, all of which are interrelated and create a viscous circle of social exclusion from which it is difficult to extract themselves on their own. In some areas of Central and Eastern Europe the Roma unemployment rate reaches 8090%. Mortality rates and life expectancy are significantly below the EU average. In addition they often suffer segregation in education and housing, a significant factor in their social exclusion. Roma children enrolled in segregated schools are at high risk of becoming unemployed or working in low skilled jobs in the informal sector. Roma communities in segregated neighbourhoods often have limited access to basic services. Their situation has worsened over the last two decades due to the transition in Eastern Europe which