mcgraw hill chapter 19 blood power point

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  • 1. 19-1 Title Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 19 Lecture Slides with Animations To run the animations you must be in Slideshow View. Use the buttons on the animation to play, pause, and turn audio/text on or off. Please note: once you have used any of the animation functions (such as Play or Pause), you must first click in the white background before you advance the next slide.

2. 19-2 Chapter 19 Cardiovascular System: Blood 3. 19-3 19.1 Functions of Blood 1. Transport of gases, nutrients and waste products; e.g. oxygen 2. Transport of processed molecules; e.g., precursor of vitamin D from skin to liver then kidneys 3. Transport of regulatory molecules; e.g., hormones 4. Regulation of pH and osmosis (normal pH of most body tissues between 7.35 and 7.45) 5. Maintenance of body temperature; e.g., warm blood shunted to the interior of the body 6. Protection against foreign substances; e.g., antibodies 7. Clot formation 4. 19-4 19.2 Composition of Blood 5. 19-5 19.3 Plasma Liquid part of blood. Colloid: liquid containing suspended substances that dont settle out of solution 91% water. Remainder proteins, ions, nutrients, waste products, gases, regulatory substances Proteins: Albumins: viscosity, osmotic pressure, buffer, transports fatty acids, free bilirubin, thyroid hormones Globulins: transports lipids, carbohydrates, hormones, ions, antibodies, and complement Fibrinogen: blood clotting 6. 19-6 Plasma Ions: involved in osmosis, membrane potentials, and acid-base balance Nutrients: glucose, amino acids, triacylglycerol, cholesterol, vitamins Waste Products: Urea, uric acid, creatinine, ammonia salts. Breakdown products of protein metabolism Bilirubin. Breakdown product of RBCs Lactic acid. End product of anaerobic respiration Gases: oxygen, carbon dioxide, and inert nitrogen Regulatory substances: hormones, enzymes 7. 19-7 8. 19-8 19.4 Formed Elements Red blood cells (erythrocytes). Biconcave discs, anucleate, contain hemoglobin; transports oxygen and carbon dioxide. White blood cells (leukocytes) Granulocytes: cytoplasm contains large granules; have multi-lobed nuclei. Three distinctive types: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils Agranulocytes: cytoplasm contains small granules and nuclei that are not lobed. Two distinctive types: lymphocytes and monocytes Platelets (thrombocytes). Cell fragment. Form platelet plugs, release chemicals necessary for blood clotting. 9. 19-9 Production of Formed Elements Hematopoiesis or hemopoiesis: Process of blood cell production Stem cells: All formed elements derived from single population Proerythroblasts: Develop into red blood cells Myeloblasts: Develop into basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils Lymphoblasts: Develop into lymphocytes Monoblasts: Develop into monocytes Megakaryoblasts: Develop into platelets 10. 19-10 11. 19-11 Hematopoiesis 12. 19-12 Red Blood Cells Found in higher concentration in male than in female plasma Components 1/3 Hemoglobin 2/3 Lipids, ATP, carbonic anhydrase 13. 19-13 RBC Function: Transport Oxygen from lungs to tissues: 98.5% attached to hemoglobin; 1.5% dissolved in plasma Carbon dioxide from tissues to lungs. 7% dissolved in plasma 23% in combination with hemoglobin 70% transported as bicarbonate ions produced as a result of combination of H2O and CO2 because of enzyme carbonic anhydrase found within RBCs 14. 19-14 Hemoglobin Types of hemoglobin Embryonic and fetal: have greater attraction for oxygen than adult. Fetal production stops after birth. Adult Oxyhemoglobin: transporting oxygen Deoxyhemoglobin Carbaminohemoglobin: transporting carbon dioxide 15. 19-15 Hemoglobin Composition Four globin molecules (polypeptide chains): Transport carbon dioxide (carbonic anhydrase involved), nitric oxide. NO brought from lungs to tissues, induces smooth muscles to relax, lowering BP. Four heme molecules, each containing one iron atom: transport oxygen Iron required for oxygen transport. Iron absorbed in upper small intestine; absorption increased by stomach acid and vitamin C. Iron lost in urine, feces, menstrual fluid. 16. 19-16 Please note that due to differing operating systems, some animations will not appear until the presentation is viewed in Presentation Mode (Slide Show view). You may see blank slides in the Normal or Slide Sorter views. All animations will appear after viewing in Presentation Mode and playing each animation. Most animations will require the latest version of the Flash Player, which is available at http://get.adobe.com/flashplayer. 17. 19-17 Erythropoiesis RBCs last 120 days in circulation (enucleated) Production of red blood cells Stem cells proerythroblasts early erythroblasts intermediate erythroblasts late erythroblasts reticulocytes Erythropoietin: hormone stimulates RBC production; produced by kidneys in response to low blood O2 levels. 18. 19-18 Erythropoiesis 19. 19-19 Hemoglobin Breakdown 20. 19-20 White Blood Cells Protect body against microorganisms and remove dead cells and debris Movements Ameboid: pseudopods Diapedesis: cells become thin, elongate and move either between or through endothelial cells of capillaries Chemotaxis: attraction to and movement toward foreign materials or damaged cells. Accumulation of dead white cells and bacteria is pus. 21. 19-21 Formed Elements/WBC 22. 19-22 Neutrophils: after leaving bone marrow, stay in circulation 10-12 hours then move into other tissues. Become motile, phagocytize bacteria, antigen- antibody complexes and other foreign matter. Secrete lysozyme. Last 1-2 days. Account for 60- 70% of the WBC. Eosinophils. Leave circulation and enter tissues during inflammatory response. Prevalent in allergic reactions. Destroy inflammatory chemicals like histamine. Release chemicals that help destroy tapeworms, flukes, pinworms, and hookworms. Account for 2-4% of the WBC. 23. 19-23 Basophils: least common. Leave circulation and migrate through tissues, play a role in both inflammatory response and allergic reactions. Produce histamine and heparin. Account for less than 1% of the WBC. Lymphocytes: produced in red bone marrow but then migrate to lymphatic tissues and proliferate. Responsible for antibody production. Studied extensively with the immune system. Account for 20- 25% of the WBC. Monocytes: remain in circulation for 3 days, leave circulation and become macrophages. Phagocytic cells. Can break down antigens and present them to lymphocytes for recognition. Account for 3-8% of the WBC. 24. 19-24 Platelets Cell fragments pinched off from megakaryocytes in red bone marrow Surface glycoproteins and proteins allow adhesion to other molecules; i.e., collagen Important in preventing blood loss Platelet plugs Promoting formation and contraction of clots 25. 19-25 19.5 Hemostasis Arrest of bleeding Events preventing excessive blood loss Vascular spasm: Vasoconstriction of damaged blood vessels. Can occlude small vessels. Caused by thromboxanes from platelets and endothelin from damaged endothelial cells. Platelet plug formation Coagulation or blood clotting 26. 19-26 Platelet Plug Formation * Also expression of coagulation factor V and phospholipid (platelet factor III). Important for coagulation 27. 19-27 Coagulation Stages Activation of prothrombinase Conversion of prothrombin to thrombin Conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin Coagulation factors. Proteins found in plasma. Circulate in inactive state until tissues are injured. Damaged tissues and platelets produce chemicals that begin activation of the factors. Pathways Extrinsic Intrinsic Result: blood clot. A network of threadlike fibrin fibers, trapped blood cells, platelets and fluid 28. 19-28 29. 19-29 Clot Formation 30. 19-30 Extrinsic Clotting Pathway Begins with chemicals outside of blood Stage 1 Damaged tissues release tissue factor (TF; factor III) When Ca2+ is present, forms complex with factor VII, activating factor X Prothrombinase is formed Stage 2: prothrombinase converts prothrombin into thrombin Stage 3 Thrombin converts fibrinogen to fibrin Thrombin activates factor XIII, which stabilizes clot 31. 19-31 Intrinsic Clotting Pathway Begins with chemicals that are part of the blood Stage 1 In damaged blood vessels, factor XII comes in contact with exposed collagen, activating factor XII Stimulates factor XI, activates factor IX Activated factor IX joins with factor VIII, platelet phospholipids and Ca2+ to activate factor X Prothrombinase is formed Stages 2 and 3 progress to clot formation 32. 19-32 Control of Clot Formation Anticoagulants: prevent coagulation factors from initiating clot formation. Coagulation occurs when coagulation factor concentration exceeds a given threshold. At site of injury, threshold is exceeded. Anticoagulants Antithrombin: produced by liver, slowly inactivates thrombin Heparin: produced by basophils and endothelial cells. Increases effectiveness of antithrombin Prostacyclin: prostaglandin derivate from endothelial cells. Causes vasodilation and inhibits release of coagulating factors from platelets 33. 19-33 Fibrinolysis 34. 19-34 19.6 Blood Grouping Transfusion: transfer of blood or blood components from one individual to another Infusion: introduction of fluid other than blood Determined by antigens (agglutinogens) on surface of RBCs Antibodies (agglutinins) can bind to RBC antigens, resulting in agglutination (clumping) or hemolysis (rupture) of RBCs Groups: ABO and Rh 35. 19-35 ABO Blood Group 36. 19-36 Agglutination Reaction 37. 19-37 Transfusion Type A blood has anti-B antibodies; Type B blood has anti-A antibodies Suggested that these antibodies are present because of exposure to A and B antigens on bacteria and food Donor: gives blood. Recipient: receives blood Type O as universal do