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  • Maximizing Meaningful Disability Workplace Inclusion

    Susanne Bruyère, Ph.D. (smb23@cornell.edu) Employment and Disability Institute, ILR School

    Cornell University American Psychological Association Annual Convention

    2014 Distinguished Contributions to the Advancement of Disability Issues in Psychology

    August 9, 2014

    Research described funded by the U.S. Department of Education National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research to Cornell University for a Employer Practices Related to Employment Outcomes among Individuals with Disabilities Rehabilitation Research and Training Center (grant #H133B100017).

  • Why Disability Focus is Important • Significant part of the U.S. and global

    population (24% of American households and 15% or one billion people globally)

    • A natural part of the human condition; crosses every population/national boundary

    • Continued economic and employment disparities (in U.S. participation rates half)

    • Continuing violations of human rights

  • Why Employment Is Important • Economic independence • Provide a meaningful place in society • Ability to contribute talents and skills • Enhanced sense of self-worth • Enhanced health, physical and mental

    well-being • A right of each American/global citizen • Yet, significant disparities continue

  • Employment Focus Points • Equitable workforce preparation • Recruitment and hiring • Retention • Accommodation and accessibility • Advancement/promotional

    opportunities • Meaningful workplace inclusion

  • Survey of SHRM Membership • Over 250,000 members; stratified sample

    across industries and org. sizes • Online/phone based survey focused on:

    o Recruitment and Hiring o Accessibility and Accommodation o Retention and Advancement o Barriers, Metrics and Training

    • Data collected fall of 2011 • Response rate: 23% (n=662)

    5 Cornell/SHRM 2011 Employer Survey

  • Barriers to Employment or Advancement

    50%

    35%

    30%

    23%

    19%

    16%

    13%

    9%

    9%

    9%

    Lack of qualified applicants

    Lack of related experience

    Lack of requisite skills and training

    Supervisor knowledge of accomm.

    Cost of accommodations

    Attitudes/stereotypes

    Productivity and performance

    Additional cost of supervision

    Cost of training

    Attendance of people with disabilities

    6 Cornell/SHRM 2011 Employer Survey

  • Recruitment and Hiring Policies and Practices

    7

    47%

    57%

    58%

    59%

    61%

    53%

    43%

    42%

    41%

    39%

    Yes No

    Includes people with disabilities explicitly in its diversity and inclusion plan.

    (n = 567 )

    Requires sub-contractors/suppliers to adhere to disability nondiscrimination requirements.

    (n = 525)

    Has relationships with community organizations that promote the employment of people with disabilities.

    (n = 568)

    Actively recruits people with disabilities. (n = 574)

    Trains HR staff and supervisors on effective interviewing of people with disabilities.

    (n = 580)

    Cornell/SHRM 2011 Employer Survey

  • Recruitment and Hiring Policies and Practices

    8

    18%

    20%

    27%

    27%

    40%

    82%

    80%

    73%

    73%

    60%

    Yes No

    Includes progress toward recruitment or hiring goals for people with disabilities in the performance appraisals of senior

    management. (n = 547)

    Participates in internships or similar programs that target people with disabilities.

    (n =525)

    Has explicit organizational goals related to the recruitment or hiring goals for people with disabilities in the performance

    appraisals of senior management. (n = 540)

    Takes advantage of tax incentives for hiring people with disabilities (e.g., Small Business Tax Credit, Architectural/ Transportation Tax

    Deduction, or Work Opportunities Tax Credit). (n = 467)

    Has senior management that demonstrates a strong commitment to disability recruitment and hiring.

    (n =555)

    Cornell/SHRM 2011 Employer Survey

  • Accessibility and Accommodation Policies and Practices

    9

    65%

    68%

    73%

    73%

    75%

    35%

    32%

    27%

    27%

    25%

    Yes No

    Has an established grievance procedure to address reasonable accommodation issues. (n = 582)

    Requires training for supervisors on legal requirements of disability non-discrimination and accommodation. (n = 585)

    Has a designated office or person to address accommodation questions. (n = 613)

    Allows an employee to exceed the maximum duration of medical leave as an accommodation. (n = 557)

    Evaluates pre-employment occupational screenings to ensure they are unbiased. (n = 547)

    Cornell/SHRM 2011 Employer Survey

    Presenter Presentation Notes Sara, can you please put a green “circle around the top three items here (the lowest percentages); and a red circle across the lower two on slide #39?

  • Accessibility and Accommodation Policies and Practices

    10 Cornell/SHRM 2011 Employer Survey

    20%

    30%

    47%

    63%

    80%

    70%

    53%

    37%

    Yes No

    Has a centralized accommodations fund (i.e., company-wide fund to provide accommodations for people with disabilities).

    (n = 505)

    Has a formal (i.e., written, documented) decision-making process for the case-by-case provision of accommodations. (n

    = 558)

    Provides advance notice to job applicants that reasonable accommodations are provided during the job application

    process. (n = 552)

    Regularly reviews the accessibility of its on-line application system to people with visual, hearing, finger, dexterity, and

    cognitive impairments. (n = 481)

    Presenter Presentation Notes a red circle across the lower two on slide #39?

  • Retention and Advancement Policies and Practices

    11 Cornell/SHRM 2011 Employer Survey

    18%

    42%

    59%

    81%

    82%

    58%

    41%

    19%

    Yes No

    Has a structured mentoring program to support employees with disabilities. (n = 578)

    Employees are invited to confidentially disclose whether they have a disability (e.g., staff surveys). (n = 580)

    Has a return-to-work or disability management program for employees who are ill/injured or become disabled. (n = 595)

    Encourages flexible work arrangements for all employees (e.g., flextime, part-time, telecommuting). (n = 599)

    Presenter Presentation Notes Sara, can you please put a green “circle around the top three items here (the lowest percentages); and a red circle across the lower two on slide #41?

  • Retention and Advancement Policies and Practices

    12 Cornell/SHRM 2011 Employer Survey

    9%

    13%

    14%

    17%

    91%

    87%

    86%

    83%

    Yes No

    Includes progress toward retention and advancement goals for employees with disabilities in the performance

    appraisals of senior management. (n = 542)

    Has a disability-focused employee network (e.g., an employee resource group or affinity group). (n = 581)

    Offers special career planning and development tools for employees with disabilities. (n = 572)

    Has explicit organizational goals related to retention and advancement of employees with disabilities. (n = 543)

    Presenter Presentation Notes a red circle across the lower two on slide #41?

  • Creating a Disability Inclusive Workplace

    Rehabilitation and I/O Psychology collaboration

  • Benefits of Inclusive Climates 1. Across multiple samples, data show members of historically

    marginalized groups (e.g., women, ethnic minorities, people with disabilities, aging workers) experience less discrimination and overall better work experiences in inclusive units

    2. The demographic-based differences in experiences of “fit,” perceived fairness, harassment, engagement perceived organizational support that are commonly seen disappear in inclusive units, thereby enabling better group functioning – Higher cohesion, better information exchange – Less conflict and miscommunication – More creative; higher financial performance

    14 Nishii, L. & Bruyere, S. (2009). Protecting employees with disabilities from discrimination on the job: The role of unit managers.

  • Inclusive Climates – 3 Dimensions

    15

    •Do employment practices perpetuate stereotypes by favoring members of some demographic groups over others? •In order to “buy” message of inclusion, employees have to perceive HR practices to be fair

    Fairness of employment practices

    •Does the culture value integration of differences or expect assimilation to dominant norms? •Can employees enact and engage their “whole” selves? •Is there an expectation that everyone is both a teacher and learner?

    Cultural integration of differences