math.univ-lyon1. · PDF filey ,% ´| ; > %- ~ ' -- ;- < % ´| [[\ [[] ^...

Click here to load reader

  • date post

    11-Sep-2019
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    2
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of math.univ-lyon1. · PDF filey ,% ´| ; > %- ~ ' -- ;- < % ´| [[\ [[] ^...

  • � ������� � ��� � ��������������� ����� �!��� ��"#�%$&� '�(��)�%�����*�,+-�)$.� �/�0�)$�+213�4���5� ��� ��$ �%$ �6'7(��)������� �8+

    9;:=@?�AB>5C%DFEHGJI�K�>L R�S;TUS;VXW Y SXZ\[^]�_`RPab_6ced2f/g4hUikjml%npoL[qd�rFs%StT\uHrFv=wSbx�WyT\rzu,{}|4~4W/5�rd2S�o x�W US4Y S JW/vHvTUS�Y/S=WmuHuHr*dBBoLhUi�hmhUi4x�WyT\rzu�R�wS%Y S\!mkoT;Wkd5tS

    LkzQ,�mk �¡\¢£¤ �¥m¢£¦£ ¢ B§y¨P©Ukª«k¬ ­y®m*¯ ®*­*¥B°*±m¢ �*¯ ²}ª ³}´*µH¶·H´�¶pµ¸±�¡}¡t° ¹¦ºmº%»¼»8» ¯ ©Ukª«k¬ ­y®m*¯ ®*­*¥B°*±m¢ �*¯ ²}ªº�½5�mk �¡\¢£¤ �¥m¢£¦£ ¢ B§kº

    ¾b¿CÁÀÂDQÃ*EQÄ ^WÅ fyT;W�vf%rzTUS YJÆ ÇÈd=WkÉutS�oJ2fUPf%Êf�*rS%o�x�TUf/ÅmWÅyrzrFv=wSUu)Z\[^]�_ËRPa6_bc�d�f/g,myjkÌynpo

    [qdrQsyS;T;uÍrFv=wS�Y S x¼TtfBsyS;d5US�o j*ÎBo�T*S6¸gÏ f%zrf/vÈR,kTHrÊS�oq%jml iyj�]�WyT;u;StrzS)JwS�Y S;!�j o�TtWyd5US�o

    �FmF,¬4¢ ©y£ Ð ¨P©y¬4¢z¯¥B m¢ Ñ�ÒH¬)ª«Ó¯ ²}ª Ô�Õ C%ÖÂ×2¿ML

  • ZLH_8"H ¾ ¼ � ¥ £¢¦ §�¦ ¿ �½ �� C1?BJ HIATA µ]P&9 PC:Z&=>C1C:ZLH±6&8:9;@?TAB?DCbE F�HI=

  • � Z&?TJn?BPLHI`]K&=

  • Z&?T["ZHedLZ&?D; ?DC:J-=qF�9]@?DU&HIAB98"?DC:Z&F/?T[\]9C:?B9�P 9C:?B9�P?BPLHI`]K&=

  • �yL����M� UXW U��Xr>u } ^ h f=uDp b =AX ¼ a=u W =AX ¼ pGa2^ h pTwy\sp�� h � �x ºI�*b>"�Zv.b =YX ¼ a=u W =AX ¼ a=d�\ f 8 f=u Q�

    hTh � b &=YX ¼ W =AX ¼v |>\id�\ b &=YX ¼ h p7^T|>\��]\iu } |>\ j� [4\1zt\iu2d�\ ^mdga2u+pxGf=dsn fg b =AX ¼� �� } f2rtdpG\ \"|>a==\ a j pGfW &=AX ¼ b =AX ¼�

    hxhTh ���4f=da jTj 6 OP� f2ue\�|taqp/Gf=da jxj ½ �oQ

    b =YX ¼ 6 ½ 6 z b � � X ¼ ½ � W =YX ¼ 6 ½ 6 z W � � X ¼ ½ s> h ���[]\G^ ��|P2|E2 v f=ue\�|>aqp/Gf=da jTj ½ � Q

    b =AX ¼� ½ g|Pb = � X ¼ ½ � W = � X ¼ ½ g| W =YX ¼� ½ s> �� �x ºI�*b>"�Zv.b =YX ¼ a=u W =AX ¼ a=d�\�ps^md hm} ^ j l } f2uD=\Ma=uopia2^ h pxw-\sp

    AB?BF¦ §�¦ � 2 W =AX ¼� ½ ½ AB?BF¦ §�¦ � 2

    b =YX ¼¹ ½ ½ j"> � ZLH�=

  • �"L�� �� �� U W���� \on�a=l fg } f2rtdpG\7O\mw�ue\ j f�zOa=d h ^T|{n hZ}7~ f _ f j \G h ue\� r+a j h ^ml!fgCsr>u } ^ h f=u W v |>\id�\ W ½ h p rDaA=d�a2^ hm} if=d pn�a jTj qa j rE\sp f� ½ a=u h ^T| } f=uD2\� v Gaqpi^&\id ^T|ta2u GrDaA=d�a2^ hZ}iv z2d�f ^T| Gf=d j a=dZzO\ ½

    ~ \\ ~ \ } ^ h f=u��oGf=dpr } |\�Oa=n c j \sp

    fA^&\�^T|taA^ ?Cdgfc+fqp h ^ h f2u�� � h p�fg } f=r>dp \�pi^ hxjTj qa j h Gf=d�^T| h p & h u f� h ue\� r+a j h ^ml $ |>\sp \ h ue\GrDa jkh ^ h \spa2d�\�a j pifbpi^mrD h \ h u)a�zO\Gue\id�a jQ} aqpG\ h u��T[]\������� h u ?Cdgfsc>fqp h ^ h f=u�� �

    5(J2?TP ©C) ���Lm°³g©2·�� m8:Y�K&F�HIPaC_mC:?D9�P� �� S���S � P�vRPTS t UXW���� ppr>no\"^T|ta2^ ^T|>\ cd�f _ a _ihTj h ^ml no\�aqpsrtd�\ M f=u Q pGa2^ h pxwy\ipb^T|>\ h ue\� r+a j h ^ml b4c.0 =YX ¼� fG2 [4\ ^ � _ \�a sr>u } ^ h f=u)f=u QR pr } | ^T|taA^�� ��v j m � j |��>v ^T|>\Gu \ zt\G^Eif=d p »E�tv M R ,,

    � M R ��G ,, »rpwg| Z[[\

    [[] 2Hed]6 8 � ¼# ¼ £98 � ¼ p­�2Lf # �@ (ºV ¼ �2]z º

  • �"L�� �� �� U W�� f2^&\ ^T|taA^^T|+\)f _ ^1a h ue\7Gf=dn F/?BP¹ p ¼ sp z Mh p ua2^mr>d�a j�h u d�\1zOa=dg ^1f��Ca=rtpp h a=u ascAcd�f h n�aA^ h f=u �uO\\� v"} f=uDp h {\id v if2d \�Oa=n c j \ v �­ ½ 8 Y> > >D ½ R o 8� R 2 R 4 I 8 pS ½ m |>\id�\ p�  u| \ |ta=2\ m �L| # £98 ¤ z | hZ} | \Gua _ij \sp rtp�^1fbd�\ } f2=\id^T|>\��Ca=rtpp h a2u } f=u } \iuE^md�a2^ h f=u

    ;�< � # ,,,,, RH4 I 8 pS98 4 2 M¹¼� p¹ ,,,,,

    Orp = | ¥ £ z�� ¨ ¤ � Gf=da jTj # » ¸6p z ��32 I z �"L�� �� �� U W����4f=d�zO\iuX\id�a j-j f�zOa=d h ^T|{n hZ} ~ f _ f j \G!fg�r>u } ^ h f2u W v \Mn�a=l f _ ^1a h u } drD{\ \spi^ h n�a2^ h f=u f� ^T|>\ } f=u } \iuE^md�a2^ h f=u v a2^ j \�a=ps^CGf=d j a2dmzt\ p �ue{\\ v rtp h uOz h ue\GrDa jkh ^ml *� � , v \ |ta==\ h d�\ } ^ j l ^T|ta2^b^T|>\} f2u } \GuE^mdgaA^ h f=u _ \i|ta= h f=d h pQz h =\Gu _ l�^T|+\ �4\Gu } |>\ j [4\&zO\Gu=d�\C^md�a=u+pxGf=dsn fg W Gf=d j a=dZzO\-=a j rD\ip v pG\\ ~ \ } ^ h f=u � Gf=d n�f=d�\�{\G^1a hxj p

    #�$x# ��. ,����C(D0��"(E(E, .&,/(�����6

  • \�?BP@[eHp¬?TJn©¢?D6 J:["Z&?BC,+u=

  • .0/ L S qL�� UXWZYEY [4\ ^ M _ \�a cd�f _ a _ihTj h ^ml7n�\aqpr>d�\�f=u Q R � ppsr>n�\^T|taA^ MW �½ ¥ £ ? A §"C �½

    |>\Gd�\ < h pa } f2uD=\�r>u } ^ h f=u f=u QSR4

    �x M pia2^ h pxwy\ip ^T|>\ h ue\GrDa jkh ^ml � =YX ¼ fG ^T|>\iuif2d a jxj pqOkfv*M piaA^ h pTwy\sp ^T|>\ j f�zOa=d h ^T|{n hZ}~ f _ f j \G h ue\GrDa jkh ^mlbdc?0 �¨�� X ¼ � � � ¨� £ �

    D�EGF�F�H I ©¹H_C4P&9

  • � Z]K&J�?DcrMJ:=>C:?BJVU&HIJnC:ZLHª?BPLHI`]K&=nn�a=d h�� \sp $ |>\�f2d�\Gn � � a=u � � _ l ^T|>\ Gf jTj f h uOz h a z2d�a=n * r>u{\Gd"aqp pr>n ce^ h f=ufg $ |>\f=d�\in � � , � bdc.0 =AX ¼� fª�� � �32¨ X ¼ f���¸a� =AX ¼� fª�� � bdc?0 �¨�� X ¼ 8 ¸6p zp­f ; ! ��� � > f2^ hm} \ v aqp h ^ h p�^T|>\ } aqpG\9Gf=d�^T|+\^mdgaA h ^ h f=ua j�j f�z{a2d h ^T|{n hm}�~ f _ f j \G h uX\�GrDa jkh ^ml v ^T|ta2^-^T|>\id�\ h pa j fqppa2^y^T|>\ j \i=\ j f�-^T|+\ } f=u+ps^1a2uE^Tp h uo^T|+\� h d�\ } ^ h f=u7^mdga2u+p1c>f2ds^1a2^ h f=u h ue\GrDa jkh ^ml h n c j h \sp j f�z{a2d h ^T|{n hm} ~ f _ f j \i h ue\� r+a j h ^ml �7|>\Gu º "Qq Ov \ zO\ ^�aqp h u � � � � � � v � , X z fª�� bdc.0-, X z �A��fG� � p h u � � � � � � v $ |>\�f2d�\Gn � � } a=u _ \n�f h wy\� h u)^T|>\ } a=pG\ 5 \spp \Gd�\ pq�oQ � j pif j \G^BrOpyuf2^ hZ} \�^T|ta2^Qaqp h ub^T|+\� r+a{=dgaA^ hm} } a=pG\ \�Af�uf2^�&quf h -^T|>\sp \�^ f h uX\�GrDa jkh ^ h \ipCa=d�\�\�Gr h qa j \iu^

    5(Jn?BP �8"98:HªJV9�F�Hª6&8:9\Gu M piaA^ h pTwy\sp)^T|>\�if jTj f h utz} f=u } \iuE^md�a2^ h f=u h ue\� r+a j h ^ml

    � &�� R h ^T| MW�&ug» MWV &��I 5 g| ¥ £ (2 k � � ¿ A � C |+\id�\ �&��I 5 0 ½ �oQ R �&G ½ �» � 1

    hxh# � p h u�?-d�fc>fqp h ^ h f=u � =v ^T|>\]cd�fc+\Gds^ h \sp�fgy^&\iu+pGf=d h pGa2^ h f2u7a=d�\�a j pGf qa jkh �if2dy^md�a=u+p&c>f=di^1a2^ h f2u h ue\GrDa jkh ^ml� =YX ¼¹ fG2

    []\G^ M 8 a=u M z _ \)^ f!cdgf _ a _Ghxjkh ^ml no\�aqpsrtd�\sp f=u Q R ( a=u Q R ¨ ~ r c{c>fqpG\^T|ta2^ M 8 * d�\ip1c M z ,pGa2^ h pxwy\ip)^T|+\ h ue\GrDa jkh ^ml�� =YX ¼� f 8 * d�\sp1c � =YX ¼� f z , ^T|>\iu`^T|>\Mcdgf _ a _Ghxjkh ^ml M 8 . M z f=u QSR/(s�wR ¨ vpGa2^ h pxwy\ip h ue\GrDa jkh ^ml � =YX ¼����v |>\id�\ �7F/=°d�0>f 8 �f z 1

    hThxh# �xy^T|>\-no\aqpr>d�\ M =\Gd h wy\sp@� =AX ¼¹ fªv ^T|>\iu M pGa2^ h pTwy\spCa ?�f h u } a=d @\ h ue\� r+a j h ^ml  ·� h ^T|^T|>\ } f=u+pi^1a=uE^ f�

    D�EGF�F�H I � ZLH�LHIF�9�P&J:CV8"=>C:?D9�PX9C:?BJVU&HIJ4C:ZLH1&K&=

  • ZLH_8"H 5 8 pq?BJnLH_U@P&HIo=

  • D�EGF�F�H I f HXZ&=I^³´E � ZLH_9

    J � C-?BF�6@AB?BHIJNC:ZLH­Hed�?BJ:CVHIP&[eH/9C:?BJVU&HIJª=oAD98"?DC:Z&F­?B[/\]9

  • h � ~  p±«� z M| ��� x  p¹ > hTh � ~ )�� z p*z M|E@ ��� x  p¹ > hxhTh � ~ )+* z p*z*AD9

  • D�EGF�F�H I f HGK&J:H � ZLH_9

  • � ZLHIP�C:Z&Hª[e9�P&JVC:=

  • � ZLHIP H-9

  • �? doPL9 �7?BP&c�0RQ.��

    VQO� ¸af 7 �,QC��VVQ � ¸af 7 1 =

  • �Y&�