Maryville University Nursing Students

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The Digestive System. Maryville University Nursing Students. Digestion. Digestion The process by which the digestive system breaks down food into molecules that the body can use. 2 types of digestion Mechanical digestion -foods are physically broken down into smaller pieces. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Maryville University Nursing StudentsThe Digestive System DigestionDigestionThe process by which the digestive system breaks down food into molecules that the body can use. 2 types of digestionMechanical digestion-foods are physically broken down into smaller pieces.Chemical digestion-chemicals produced by the body break larger molecules into smaller ones.

Digestion (cont)EnzymesThe chemicals involved in breaking down food molecules.AbsorptionThe process by which nutrients pass through the lining of the digestive system into the blood.

EliminationEliminationMaterials not absorbed are eliminated from the body as waste.

The Mouth

The Mouth

The beginning of digestionMechanical digestionThe Jaw Teeth tear, crush, and grind foodTongue pushes food aroundSalivaChemical digestionEnzymes in saliva begin to breakdown starches in food.Saliva also moistens the bite of food into a slippery mass called a bolus that can be easily swallowedApproximately 1.5 L of saliva is secreted daily The Pharynx

The pharynxLocation3 main partsNasopharynaxOropharynaxLaryngopharynxBehind nasal and oral cavityNasopharynax- behind the nasal cavity

The PharynxOropharynx- part you can see through the mouth

The PharynxLaryngopharynx- the bottom part of the Pharynx Back part of pharynx continues downward into the esophagusThe front part leads to the larynx (voice box)During swallowing the entrance of the larynx is covered by the epiglottisThe EsophagusThe EsophagusConnects throat (pharynx) with the stomachMuscular tube10 inches longLined moist pink tissue called MucosaRuns behind windpipe (trachea) and heart, but in front of the spine.Passes through diaphragmThe Esophagus

Upper Esophageal Sphincter

Lower esophageal sphincter

The StomachStomachMechanical DigestionThree layers of stomach muscle cause a churning motionChemical DigestionPepsin Breaks down proteinsWorks well with hydrochloric acid Stomach is protected by a lining of mucus to aid in protection of itself from the acid

StomachDigestion normally occurs over a few hoursMost proteins have been chemically digested into shorter chains of amino acidsPeristalsis moves food along into the small intestineFood becomes a thick liquid called chymeIntestinesSmall intestine20 feet long, 1 inch diameterWhere most of the chemical digestion and nutrient absorption takes place Fingerlike projections along the lining called villi which absorb nutrient moleculesNutrients pass onto the blood vessels on the villi and pass on into the blood stream and throughout the body

Digestion (cont)Liver, Gallbladder, and Pancreas also help in digestionLiverProduces bile which breaks up large fat droplets that clump togetherGallbladderStorage for bile. As food leaves your stomach, the gallbladder releases the bilePancreasReleases enzymes into the small intestine for the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins and fats

Large Intestine (Colon)5 ft long, 3 inches in diameterVitamin production through the natural bacteria living in the lining of the large intestineMost of bodys requirements of Vit KMost nutrients have been absorbed when food enters large intestineAs it moves through the large intestine, most of the remaining water is absorbed into the bloodstreamIt ends at the rectum, a short tube where waste material is compressed into solid form known as feces or stool and eliminated through the anus is the process that physically broken down into smaller pieces?What are the Chemicals involved in breaking down food moleculesWhat is the beginning of digestionThe average person produces 1.5 liters of this per dayWhat is the name of the thick liquid that moves along into the small intestines

What is the muscle flap called that covers the opening of the larynx during swallowingWhat are the fingerlike projections that absorb nutrient moleculesWhat Stores BileMuscular tube that connects the throat with the stomachThe wave like function that moves food along to the intestines