Marie Curie 1867 - 1934 Nobel prize in Physics, 1903 (jointly with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel)...

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Transcript of Marie Curie 1867 - 1934 Nobel prize in Physics, 1903 (jointly with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel)...

  • Slide 1
  • Marie Curie 1867 - 1934 Nobel prize in Physics, 1903 (jointly with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel) Nobel prize in Chemistry, 1911 Presented by Penny J. Gilmer, Ph. D, D. Sc.Ed. Professor Emerita Florida State University January 18, 2011 International Year of Chemistry Networking Breakfast, Florida State University 1
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  • Manya Sklodowskas childhood Parents were teachers Birthplace: Warsaw, Poland Three sisters & one brother Manyas mother died of TB Oldest sister, Zosia, died of typhus Manya, a brilliant, serious student International Year of Chemistry Networking Breakfast, Florida State University 2
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  • Young adulthood as governess Decided to work to earn money so Bronya could move to Paris and study medicine At 18, became a governess in a home in country Bronya promised to pay for Marie to come to Paris, once she graduated International Year of Chemistry Networking Breakfast, Florida State University 3
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  • Marie Sklodowska to Paris to study Photo taken (Marie on left) before she moved to Paris at age 25, to study at the Sorbonne Paris was free while Poland was under Russian rule Student in the Faculty of Science at last, taking physics & mathematics Initially, lived with sister, Bronya, and brother-in-law, then moved to cold flat by self, in Latin Quarter to study International Year of Chemistry Networking Breakfast, Florida State University 4
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  • Meets French physicist Pierre Curie Visiting professor from Germany introduced Marie to Pierre who worked at another university and had room for Marie to do experiments He gave her copy of article of his, On symmetry in physical phenomena: Symmetry of an electric field and of a magnetic field He wrote her: of her patriotic dream, our humanitarian dream, and our scientific dream International Year of Chemistry Networking Breakfast, Florida State University 5
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  • Married at 27, and first child, Irene, at 29 Still to work on her doctoral work Henri Becquerel, her major professor, followed up on Roentgens discovery of X-raysBecquerel found spontaneous emission of rays from uranium International Year of Chemistry Networking Breakfast, Florida State University 6
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  • Marie used Pierres quartz piezolectrique to measure radioactivity Measured power of power of ionization using equipment that Pierre and his brother, had discovered earlier Wondered about source of the energy and realized it came from the atom Coined term radioactivity Studied all known chemical bodies; new elements more radioactive than U or Th; discovered polonium and radium International Year of Chemistry Networking Breakfast, Florida State University 7
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  • Periodic table Marie discovered radioactivity in Thorium (independently discovered by another too) Polonium (named after native country, Poland) Radium (radiates light, so radioactive) Po and Ra, new elements, discovered in pitchblende, using radioactivity emitted to follow their purification International Year of Chemistry Networking Breakfast, Florida State University 8
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  • Nobel Prize Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903 The prize was divided, one half being awarded to: ANTOINE HENRI BECQUEREL in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity ANTOINE HENRI BECQUEREL the other half jointly to: PIERRE CURIE and MARIE CURIE (SKLODOWSKA), in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel. PIERRE CURIE MARIE CURIE (SKLODOWSKA) International Year of Chemistry Networking Breakfast, Florida State University 9
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  • Few years after Nobel Had second child, Eve, in 1904 Pierre was made a professor Pierre died tragically in accident, 1906 After his death, although very difficult, Marie assumed his professorship International Year of Chemistry Networking Breakfast, Florida State University 10
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  • Photo after her 2 nd Nobel prizeNobel In 1911, received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element She was first woman to receive a Nobel prize, and first person to receive two Nobel prizes International Year of Chemistry Networking Breakfast, Florida State University 11
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  • Another highlight of Maries life During WWI she brought X-rays to the field to treat soldiers She taught her older daughter, Irene, then 18, about radiation during WWI; in 1935, Irene received Nobel prize in Chemistry with her husband, Frederic Joliet- Curie, for discovering artificial radioactivity artificial radioactivity International Year of Chemistry Networking Breakfast, Florida State University 12
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  • Book references Madame Curie, by Eve Curie (1937) Scientists in Power, by Spencer Weart (1979) Marie Curie, by Susan Quinn (1995) Creative Couples in the Sciences, by Helena Pycior, Nancy Slack, and Pnina Abir-Am (1996) Obsessive Genius: The Inner World of Marie Curie, by Barbara Goldsmith (2005) The Curies: A Biography of the Most Controversial Family in Science, by Denis Brian (2005) The Madame Curie Complex: The Hidden History of Women in Science, by Julie Des Jardins (2010) International Year of Chemistry Networking Breakfast, Florida State University 13
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  • Upcoming Symposium on Marie CurieSymposium At the AAAS Annual Meeting in Washington, DC on February 18, 2011, Penny Gilmer has organized a symposium honoring Marie Curie, with three excellent speakers:AAAS Annual Meeting Patricia Baisden: Marie Curie, the Premier Chemist, Co-Discoverer of Radiation and Radioactivity Marie Curie, the Premier Chemist, Co-Discoverer of Radiation and Radioactivity Pnina Abir-Am : Historical Perspectives on the Public Memory of Marie S. Curie (2011, 1911) Historical Perspectives on the Public Memory of Marie S. Curie (2011, 1911) Julie Des Jardins : The Marie Curie Complex: The Hidden History of Women in Science The Marie Curie Complex: The Hidden History of Women in Science International Year of Chemistry Networking Breakfast, Florida State University 14