Manufacturing Process - Aspects of Manufacturing

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lecture 2 aspect of manufacuring

Transcript of Manufacturing Process - Aspects of Manufacturing

LECTURE 2 ~ ASPECTS OF MANUFACTURING ~Prepared by: En. Masjuri Bin Musa @ Othman Lecturer Department of Design & Innovation Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka

SELECTING MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

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SHAPES & COMMON METHODS OF PRODUCTIO

Selected shape and production method:

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SELECTING MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

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ny processes are used to produce parts with certain shapes. More than one met manufacturing can be used:

SELECTING MANUFACTURING PROCESS

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SELECTING OF MATERIALS

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To design and manufacture a good, usable and dependable product: i) Understand the various properties of the materials. ii) Able to select the right materials for the right application.

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SELECTING OF MATERIALS

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deration of selecting materials for products PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL

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SELECTING OF MATERIALS

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mbination of mechanical & physical properties will create two kinds of ratio of ma h are: i) Strength to weight ratio of materials. ii) Stiffness to weight ratio of materials.

th ratio of materials particularly are very important especially for the industries space and automotive, as well as for sports equipment.

example: Aluminum, titanium, and reinforced plastics, generally have higher suc steels and cast irons.

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SELECTING OF MATERIALS

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GENERAL MANUFACTURING CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS ALLOALLOY Aluminum Copper Gray cast iron White cast iron Nickel Steels Zinc CASTABILITY E G,F E G F F E WELDABILITY MACHINABILIT Y F F D VP F E D E,G G,F G VP F F E

Note: E-excellent; G-good; F-fair; D-difficult; VP-very poor.@jurie 2007 Lecture 2

SELECTING MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

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eration on the manufacturing process selected to produce parts

mensional accuracy and surface finish.

he complexity of the dimensions as well as the shape of the part/product, affect lection of the manufacturing processes. - Example: Flat parts with thin cross-sections cannot be cast properly.

omplex parts cannot be formed easily and economically, whereas they may be c e fabricated from individual pieces.

Dimensional tolerances and surface finish obtained in hot-working operations can as fine as those obtained in cold-working (forming at room temperature). This i ue to dimensional changes, warping, and surface oxidation occur during processi materials at elevated temperatures.

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Operational and manufacturing cost.

Other major consideration are the design and cost of tooling, the lead time requir art production, and the effect of work piece material on tool and die life.

Depending on product size and shape, the cost of tooling can be substantial.

Availability of machines and equipment, and the experience of operating personn so important cost factors.

these capabilities are not available, some parts have to be manufactured by ou mpany (outsourcing). - Example: automakers and appliance manufacturers.

he quantity of parts to be made and the production rate (pieces per hour) are portant in determining the processes to be used and the economics of productio oject production, job shop, batch production or mass production.

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SELECTING MANUFACTURING PROCESSES/MATERIALS

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SEQUENCES OF IMPROPER SELECTION OF MATERIALS AND PROCE PROC

component or a product generally is considered to have failed when:

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SELECTING MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

Example of the product: Trek mountain bicycle.

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we plan the manufacture of any product, we need to answer the following questi - How do we choose the specific manufacturing processes?

- How do the materials selected influence the choice of manufacturing processe Would product function or performance issues influence our choice processes? - What criteria should we use to select processes? - Which criteria are most important?

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TYPES OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

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Manufacturing processes can be categorized:

PRIMARY MANUFACTURING PROCESSES- Are used principally to alter the materials shape or form.

- Example: Casting to transform rectangular ingots of steel into cylindrical brake drum.

Injection molding to convert pellets of thermoplastic polyethylen Into telephone handset. Rolling to flatten slabs of steel.

Sheet metalworking to band steel sheets into refrigerator housi

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SECONDARY MANUFACTURING PROCESSES- Used to add or remove geometric features from the basic forms.

- Example: the brake drum casting, undergoes secondary machining operation such as turning and grinding of the friction surface. Refrigerator housings are frequently drilled or hole-punched. In injection molded parts will have surplus flash-trimmed.

TERTIARY MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

-Related to the surface treatments such as polishing, painting, heat treating, et

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ASPECTS OF MANUFACTURING

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OBAL COMPETITIVENESS AND MANUFACTURING COST

he economics of manufacturing is one of the major consideration, due to global mpetitiveness for high quality product (world class manufacturing), and low price ve become a necessity in worldwide markets.

he following trends developed, have had a major impact on manufacturing:

Global competition increased rapidly, and the markets became multinational and ynamic. Market conditions fluctuated widely.

Customers demanded high quality, low cost products and on time delivery.

roduct variety increased substantially and products became complex, and produ cles became shorter.

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ENGINEERING METROLOGY & INSTRUMENTATION

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gineering metrology is defined as the measurement of dimensions such as lengt kness, diameter, taper, angle, flatness, profile, and etc.

st process inspection: measurement which made after the part has been produc

al time inspection/in process/on line: measurement are being made while the pa ng produced on the machine. a) Size and type of parts to be measured. b) The environment temperature, humidity, dust, etc. c) Operator skills required. d) The cost of the equipment.

Selection of measuring instruments are also depending on:

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RAL CHARACTERISTICS AND SELECTION OF MEASURING INSTRUM

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ctors contribute to the subsequent deviation in the dimension can be due to: i) Technical factor. ii) Human factor.

atic and dynamic deflections of the machine because of vibrations and fluctuatin es.

istortion of the machine because of thermal effects caused by such changes as i mperature of the environment, of metal working fluid, and of machine bearings a ious components. - Wear and tear of tools, dies, and molds. - Human errors and miscalculations.

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TYPES OF MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUMENTSTABLE 35.1 Measurement Linear I n s t r u m e n t Steel rule Vernier caliper Micrometer, with vernier Diffraction grating Bevel protractor, with vernier Sine bar Dial indicator Electronic gage Gage blocks Autocollimator Transit Laser beam Interferometry Dial indicator Circular tracing Radius or fillet gage Dial indicator Optical comparator Coordinate measuring machines Plug gage Ring gage Snap gage Toolmakers Light section Scanning electron Laser scan m Sensitivity in.

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Angle Comparative length Straightness Flatness Roundness Profile

0.5 mm 25 2.5 1 5 min

1/64 in. 1000 100 40

1 0.1 0.05 2.5 0.2 mm/m 2.5 0.03 0.03 1 125 0.25

40 4 2 100 0.002 in./ft 100 1 1 40 5000 10

GO-NOT GO Microscopes

2.5 1 0.001 0.1

100 40 0.04 5

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TYPES OF MEASUREMENTS & INSTRUMENTS

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(a) Analog micrometer Vernier caliper (c)

Digital micrometer Dial indicators

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Vernier for angle measurement Bevel protractor (measuring angle)

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Electronic gages

Figure 35.7 An electronic gage for measuring bore diameters. The measuring head is equipped with three carbide-tipped steel pins for wear resistance. The LED display reds 29.158 mm. Courtesy of TESA SA.@jurie 2007 Lecture 2

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Figure shows (a) Schematic illustration of out of roundness (exaggerated). Measuring roundness using (b) V-block and dial indicator, (c) part supported on centers and rotated, and (d) circular tracing, with part being rotated on a vertical axis. Source: After F. T. Farago.

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Measuring profilesFigure shows a measuring profiles with (a) radius gages and (b) dial indicators.

Figure s