Manifest DestinyManifest Destiny, Texas and the Mexican-American War
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Transcript of Manifest DestinyManifest Destiny, Texas and the Mexican-American War
Manifest Destiny, Texas and the Mexican-American War
Texas Independence (?) from Mexico Chapter 13, pgs. 293-296
XVI. Gone to TexasIn 1821 Mexicans won their independence:A new regime in Mexico City concluded 1823 agreements for granting a huge tract of land to Stephen AustinPromising he would bring 300 American families to TexasImmigrants were to be Roman CatholicsAnd settlements were to become properly MexicanizedThese two stipulations were largely ignored
XVI. Gone to Texas(cont.)Texan Americans:Numbered about 30,000 by 1835 (see Makers of America: Mexican or Texican? pp. 296-297)Most were law-abiding and God-fearing, but some of them had left the States ahead of the sheriffG.T.T. (Gone to Texas) became descriptive slangAmong them were Davy Crockett, Jim BowieA latecomer was an ex-governor of Tennessee, Sam Houston The pioneer individualists who came to Texas were not to easy to push around
XVI. Gone to Texas(cont.) Friction increased between Mexicans and Texans over issues:Slavery, immigration, and local rightsSlavery was a particularly touchy topicMexico emancipated its slaves in 1830 and prohibited further importation of slaves into Texas, as well as further colonization by troublesome AmericansThe Texans refused to honor these decreesThey kept their slaves in bondage, and new American settlers kept bringing more slaves into Texas
XVI. Gone to Texas(cont.)Stephen Austen went to Mexico City in 1833 to negotiate these differencesDictator Santa Anna clapped him in jail for eight monthsThe explosion came to an end in 1835, when Santa Anna: wiped out all local rightsstarted to raise an army to suppress the upstart Texas
XVII. The Lone Star RebellionIn 1836 Texas declared its independence:Unfurled their Long Star flag Named Sam Houston commander in chiefSanta Anna with 6000 men swept into TexasHe trapped 200 Texans at the Alamo in San Antonio, wiping them out in thirteen daysLater a band of 400 surrounded and defeated them, throwing down their arms at Goliad, were butchered as pirates
XVII. The Lone Star Rebellion(cont.)Results:All these operations delayed the Mexican advance and galvanized American oppositionSlain heroes like Jim Bowie and David Crockett became legendary in deathTexan war cries: Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad, and Death to Santa AnnaScores of vengeful Americans seized their rifles and rushed to the aid of relatives, friends, and compatriots
XVII. The Lone Star Rebellion(cont.)General Sam Houstons small army retreated to the east:Luring Santa Anna to San Jacinto, near the site of the city that bears Houstons name (see Map 13.3)Mexicans were 13,000 men, and the Texans 900On April 21, 1836, Houston, taking advantage of the Mexican siesta, wiped out the pursuing forces and captured Santa AnnaFacing 30 bowie knives, he was speedily induced to sign two treaties
XVII. The Lone Star Rebellion(cont.)Terms of the treaty:Santa Anna agreed to withdraw Mexican troopsAnd to recognize the Rio Grande as the extreme southwestern boundary of TexasWhen Santa Anna was released, he repudiated the agreement as illegal because it had been extorted under duress; resigns in disgraceThe Mexican Government does not recognize treaty and considers Texas as a rebellious province
XVII. The Lone Star Rebellion(cont.)Americans overwhelmingly favorable to Texans, openly nullified the existing legislationIn 1837, President Jackson extended recognition to the Lone Star Republic, led by his old comrade-in-arms against the Indians, Sam HoustonMany Texans wanted both recognition of their independence and outright union with the United States
XVII. The Long Star Rebellion(cont.)Texas petitioned for annexation in 1837:BUT USA was held back by the slavery issueMany Texans were slaveholders and admitting Texas to the Union inescapably meant enlarging American slaveryNortherners feared that Texas (as one state or multiple states) would upset the delicate compromise of admitting equal number of slave and non-slave state
Mexican American War 1846-1848 Chapter 17, pgs. 400-414
Texas as an Independent Country
Faced threats from Mexico.refused to recognize Texass independenceregarded the Lone Star Republic as a province in revolt to be reconquered in the futurethreatened USA with war if it intervenedRequest for annexation into US snubbed Absence US annexations, it sought alliances with other foreign powersIn 1839 and 1840, the Texans concluded a treaty with France, Holland, and Belgium.
Texas as an Independent CountryBritain was interested in an independent TexasTexas would serve as a check for Americans moving South, possibly into British territory British abolitionists were busily intriguing for a foothold in Texas British manufacturers perceived the Texas plains for great cotton-producing in the future relieving Britain of chronic dependence on American fiber.
VI. The Belated Texas NuptialsTexas became a leading issue in the 1844 presidential campaign:The foes of expansion assailed annexationSouthern hotheads cried, Texas or DisunionThe pro-expansion Democrats under James K. Polk finally triumphed over the WhigsLame duck president Tyler interpreted the narrow Democratic victory as a mandate to acquire Texas.Tyler deserves credit for shepherding Texas into the fold.
VI. The Belated Texas Nuptials(cont.)Tyler despaired of securing the needed 2/3 vote for a treaty in the SenateHe arranged for annexation by a joint resolutionAfter a spirited debate, the resolution passed in 1845 and Texas was formally invited to become the 28th star on the American flagMexico angrily charged that the Americans had despoiled it of TexasMexico left the Texans dangling by denying their right to dispose of themselves as they chose
VI. The Belated Texas Nuptials(cont.)By 1845 the Lone Star Republic had become a danger spot:Inviting foreign intrigue that menaced the American peopleThe continued existence of Texas as an independent nation threatened to involve the United States in warsThe United States can hardly be accused of haste in achieving annexation.
X. Misunderstandings with MexicoFaraway California was another interest for Polk:Diverse population: Spanish Mexicans, Indians, some foreigners and AmericansGiven time these transplant Americans might bring California into the UnionPolk was eager to buy from MexicoBut the United States had some $3 million claim to American citizens and their propertyA more serious contention was TexasDeadlock with Mexico over Texass boundaries.
Map 17-4 p375
X. Misunderstandings with Mexico(cont.)Texas wanted the Rio Grande River boundary but Mexico only wanted the Nueces River boundaryPolk was careful to keep American troops out of the no-mans-landCalifornia continued to cause Polk anxiety:RumorsBritish wanted to buy or seize CaliforniaA grab the Americans could not tolerate under the Monroe DoctrinePolk dispatched John Slidell to Mexico City (1845):To offer $25 million for California and territory to the eastMexico would not even permit Slidell to present his case
XI. American Blood on American (?) SoilPolk was ready to take action:January 13, 1846 he ordered 4000 men:Under General Zachary Taylor to march from Nueces River to the Rio Grande hoping for a clashWhen nothing happened he informed his cabinet (May 9, 1846) that he proposed to declare warUnpaid claimsSlidells rejectionNew of bloodshed arrived on the same nightMexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and met Taylor.
XI. American Blood on American (?) Soil (cont.)Polk sent a vigorous war message to Congress:Congress overwhelmingly voted for warIn his message to Congress, Polk was making historynot writing itSpot resolutionby Abraham Lincoln demanding information as to the precise spot on American soil where American blood had been shed.Did Polk provoke war?California was imperative in his programMexico would not see it at any price
XI. American Blood on American (?) Soil (cont.)Polk wanted California by any means, so he pushed the quarrel to a bloody showdownBoth sides were spoiling for a fightBoth sides were fired by moral indignationThe Mexican people could fight with the flaming sword of righteousnessMany earnest Americans sincerely believed that Mexico was the aggressor.
XII. The Mastering of MexicoPolk wanted Mexiconot war:When war came: he wanted to fight on a limit scale and then pull out when he captured the prizeSanta Anna convinced Polk that he would sell out his country, then drove his countrymen to a desperate defense of their soil
XIII. The Mastering of Mexico(cont.)American operation in the Southwest and California were completely successful (see Map 17.3):Both General Stephen W. Kearny and Captain John C. Frmont had success in the WestFrmont collated with American naval officers and local Americans who hoisted the banner of short-lived California Bear Flag Republic.
XIII. The Mastering of Mexico(cont.)General Zachery Taylor fought the Mexicans in several successful battles and then reached Buena Vista:Here he captured 20,000 troops under Santa AnnaThe Mexicans were finally conqueredZachery Taylor became the Hero of Buena Vista.Now he called for a crushing blow at the enemys vitalsMexico CityTaylor, however, could not win decisively in the semideserts of northern Mexico.
XIII. The Mastering of Mexico(cont.)General Winfield Scott succeeded in battling his way up to Mexico City by Sept., 1847One of the most brilliant campaigns in American annals:He proved to be the most distinguished general produced by his country between the Americ