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  • 1. The ManagementEnvironmentModule 1 LIS 580: Spring 2006Instructor- Michael Crandall

2. Roadmap Why do we care? What do managers do? Where did management come from? What kinds of management are there? Whats happening today?July 21, 2005 LIS580- Spring 2006 2 3. Why Do We Care? modern society has become a society oforganizations In a society of organizations,managing becomes a social function andmanagement the constitutive, the determining,the differential organ of society. Drucker, 1986 In other words, youre in it whether you like itor not, so better to understand how it works inorder to use it to your advantageJuly 21, 2005LIS580- Spring 2006 3 4. Organization Defined Organization A group of people with formally assigned roles who work together to achieve the stated goals of the group. Characteristics: Common purpose/goals Organizational structure G.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005LIS580- Spring 2006 4 5. Management Defined Manager A person who plans, organizes, leads, and controls the work of others so that the organization achieves its goals. Is responsible for contribution. Gets things done through the efforts of other people. Is skilled at the management process. Management Process Refers to the managers four basic functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.G.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005LIS580- Spring 20065 6. Mintzbergs Managerial Roles Figurehead Leader Liaison Spokesperson Negotiator G.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005LIS580- Spring 2006 6 7. The Manager as Innovator The Entrepreneurial Process Getting employees to think of themselves as entrepreneurs. The Competence-Building Process Working hard to create an environment that lets employees really take charge. The Renewal Process Guarding against complacency by encouraging employees to question why they do things as they doand if they might do them differently.G.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005LIS580- Spring 20067 8. Types of ManagersFIGURE 11G.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005 LIS580- Spring 20068 9. The Managerial Skills Technical Skills The need to know how to plan, organize, lead, and control. Interpersonal Skills An understanding of human behavior and group processes, and the feelings, attitudes, and motives of others, and ability to communicate clearly and persuasively. Conceptual Skills Good judgment, creativity, and the ability to see the big picture when confronted with information.G.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005 LIS580- Spring 2006 9 10. The Foundations Of ModernManagement The Classical and Scientific School Frederick Winslow Taylor and Scientific Management1. The one best way2. Scientific selection of personnel3. Financial incentives4. Functional foremanship G.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005LIS580- Spring 2006 10 11. The Foundations Of Modern Management (contd) The Classical and Scientific School (contd) Frank and Lillian Gilbreth and Motion Study Analyzed physical motion and work processes toimprove worker efficiency. Henri Fayol and the Principles of Management Defined the functions of management Published General and Industrial Management Advocated chain of command G.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005LIS580- Spring 2006 11 12. The Foundations Of Modern Management (contd) The Classical and Scientific School (contd) Max Weber and the Bureaucracy A well-defined hierarchy of authority A clear division of work A system of rules covering the rights and duties ofposition incumbents A system of procedures for dealing with the worksituation Impersonality of interpersonal relationships Selection for employment, and promotion based ontechnical competenceG.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005 LIS580- Spring 2006 12 13. The Foundations Of Modern Management (contd) The Behavioral School The Hawthorne Studies Researchers found that it was the socialsituations of the workers, not just the workingconditions, that influenced behavior at work. The Human Relations Movement Emphasized that workers were not just givensin the system. Workers have needs and desiresthat organizations have to accommodate.G.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005 LIS580- Spring 2006 13 14. Douglas McGregor: Theory X andTheory Y Theory X Most people dislike work and responsibility and prefer to be directed. They are motivated not by the desire to do a good job, but simply by financial incentives. Most people must be closely supervised, controlled, and coerced into achieving organizational objectives. G.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005 LIS580- Spring 200614 15. Douglas McGregor: Theory X and Theory Y (contd) Theory Y People wanted to work hard. People could enjoy work. People could exercise substantial self- control. Managers could trust employees if managers treated them right. G.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005LIS580- Spring 2006 15 16. The Foundations Of Modern Management (contd) The Behavioral School (contd) Rensis Likert and the Employee-Centered Organization Less effective organizations have a job-centered focus: specialized jobs, emphasis onefficiency, and close supervision of workers. Effective employee-centered organizationsbuild effective work groups with highperformance goals. Participation is an important approachemployed by high-producing managers.G.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005LIS580- Spring 200616 17. Bridging the Eras: The Administrative School Chester Barnards Zone of Indifference A range of orders that a worker will willingly accept without consciously questioning their legitimacy. Managers have to provide sufficient inducements (andnot just financial ones) to make each employees zone ofindifference wider. Herbert Simon and Managerial Influence Use the classicists command and control approach. Foster employee self-control by providing better training,encouraging participative leadership, and developingcommitment and loyalty.G.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005LIS580- Spring 200617 18. The Quantitative/ManagementScience School The Management Science Approach Operations Research/ Management Science Seeks optimal solutions to management problemsthrough research and the use of scientific analysis andtools. The Systems Approach The view that an organization exists as a set ofinterrelated subsystems that all contribute internally to theorganizations purpose and success while interacting withthe organizations external environment.G.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005LIS580- Spring 200618 19. The Situational/ContingencySchool Contingency View of Management. The organization and how its managers should manage it are contingent on the companys environment and on technology. Tom Burns and G. M. Stalker Mechanistic organizations Organic organizationsG.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005 LIS580- Spring 2006 19 20. Multi-Ontology Sense Making David Snowdenproposes that welook at theproblem throughmultiple lenses Clearly morecomplex spacethan mostmanagementsystems take intoaccount Kurtz, C. F.; Snowden, D. J. The new dynamics of strategy: Sense-making in complex March 24, 2005. From Pollard, D. How to Saveathe World. and complicated world. IBM Systems Management Journal. 42, Number 3, 2003. 21, 2005 LIS580- Spring 2006 20 21. Fundamental Changes FacingManagers FIGURE 12 G.Dessler, 2003July 21, 2005LIS580- Spring 2006 21 22. Two Books to Read Reich, Robert B. The Work of Nations:Preparing Ourselves for 21st CenturyCapitalism. Vintage, 1992. Friedman, Thomas L. The World Is Flat:A Brief History of the Twenty-firstCentury. Farrar, Straus and Giroux ,2005. 21, 2005 LIS580- Spring 200622