Makalah Zaman Purba

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    Ibtb _dnebntbr

    _uhg syuiur idpbmb ]ulbn Wbne Kblb Dsb btbs sdeb`b `gkpblbn Qblkbt

    nyb sdlgneeb sbyb mbpbt kdnyd`dsbgibn pdnyusunbn Kbib`bl gng mb`bkadntui kbupun gsgnyb ybne sbnebt sdmdrlbnb. Sdkfeb Kbib`bl gng

    mbpbt mgpdreunbibn sdabebg sb`bl sbtu bcubn mb`bk ad`bhbr, sdabebg

    pdtunhui kbupun pdmfkbn.

    Sbyb adrlbrbp sdkfeb kbib`bl gng mbpbt kdkabntu kdnbkabl

    pdnedtblubn mbn pdneb`bkbn abeg pbrb pdkabcb, sdlgneeb sbyb mbpbt

    kdkpdrabgig adntui kbupun gsg Kbib`bl gng sdlgneeb idmdpbnnyb mbpbt

    `dagl abgi.

    Kbib`bl gng kbsgl abnybi idiurbnebn. F`dl idrdnb gtu sbyb lbrbpibn

    idpbmb pbrb pdkabcb untui kdkadrgibn kbsuibn-kbsuibn ybne

    adrsgjbt kdkabneun untui idsdkpurnbbn Kbib`bl gng.

    Adibsg, Hbnubrg 1?21

    _dnu`gs

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    Mbjtbr Gsg

    Lb`bkbn Humu`

    Ibtb _dnebntbr2

    Mbjtbr Gsg1

    _dnmblu`ubn..3

    Aba 2Xbkbn Abtu.4

    Aba 1Xbkbn @febk.21

    Aba 3Hdngs-Hdngs Kbnusgb _urab.............................2=

    Aba =Cfrbi Idlgmupbn _rbsdhbrbl Gnmfndsgb Mbn Lbsg` Aumbybnyb.25

    Eb`drg Jftf.1?

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    _dnmblu`ubn

    2.2 @btbr Ad`bibne

    Sdabegbn adsbr pbrb g`kuwbn adrpdnmbpbt ablwb kbnusgb lgmup sdigtbr 1 hutb tblun ybne `b`u.]dtbpg kbnusgb abrbneib`g adrbwb` mbrg pdridkabnebn `d`ulurnyb ybne lgmup pdrtbkb ib`g = hutb

    tblun ybne `b`u. @d`ulur prb-kbnusgb bmb`bl kbli`ui ybne kdnydrupbg kbnusgb ybne adrhb`bn

    tdebi mdnebn uiurbn ybne idcg`.

    _brb g`kuwbn ybign ablwb kbnusgb mbn idrb adsbr, sdpdrtg sgkpbnsd, efrg``b, frbne utbn adrbsb`

    mbrg `d`ulur ybne sbkb. Jfsg`-jfsg` kbil`ui iunf ybne kdnydrupbg kbnusgb mbn idrb adsbrkdnunhuiibn idsbkbbn, tdrkbsui idsbkbbn uiurbn ftbi.

    Igsbl dvf`usg kbnusgb pun mgku`bg mdnebn bmbnyb pdruablbn gi`gk. Igrb-igrb 24 hutb tblun ybnesg`bk subtu hb`ur lutbn trfpgi ku`bg kdnedrgne idtgib huk`bl curbl luhbn kdnurun. Hb`ur gtu

    kdkadntbne mbrg pbntbg tgkur Bjrgib kdndkaus Brbagb mbn Gnmgb sbkpbg Bsgb ]dneebrb. Lutbn-lutbn ybne `dabt gtu kdngpgs `b`u kdnelg`bne mg sd`urul tdkpbt idcub`g mg mbdrbl pb`gne absblybne adrbmb mg tdpg-tdpg sunebg mbn mbnbu sdlgneeb tdradntbne`bl mbdrbl `ubs sbabnb mbn tbnbl

    lutbn tdrauib. _bmb bwb` kbsb pdruablbn dif`feg gng tdrhbmg dvf`usg Qbkbpgtldcus, ybing kbtb

    rbntbg bntbrb kbnusgb mbn prgkbtb ybne `bgn.

    Kbnusgb kfmdrn pdrtbkb kuncu` sdigtbr 2?? rgau tblun ybne `b`u mg ]gkur tdnebl mbn Bjrgib.

    Kbnusgb gng kdkg`gig mbeu, mblg ybne tgneeg, mbn wbhbl ybne `dagl idcg` mbn tgmbi tdr`b`ukdnfnhf` mgabnmgneibn mdnebn wbhbl bwb` Lfkf sbpgdns. Kbnusgb kfmdrn bwb` hueb tgmbi

    kdkg`gig tu`bne b`gs adsbr mbn kdkg`gig tdneifrbi ybne `dagl tgneeg mbn `dagl au`bt. _brb

    g`kuwbn kdnei`bsgjgibsgibn kbnusgb kfmdrn sdabebg Lfkf sbpgdns sbpgdns, ybing sua spdsgds

    mbrg Lfkf sbpgdns. _brb bl`g Bntrfpf`feg ybign ablwb kbnusgb kfmdrn pdrtbkb bmb`blpdridkabnebn mbrg tgpd bwb` Lfkf sbpgdns.

    _dradmbbn Qbs kbnusgb adrluaunebn drbt mdnebn bsb`-usu` kbnusgb. Jgsgi kbnusgb kfmdrnadruabl sdcbrb adrtblbp mbrg sbtu tdkpbt id tdkpbt `bgnnyb, sdlgneeb su`gt untui

    kdneebkabribn ebrgs pdkgsbl mgbntbrb kdrdib. Id`fkpfi kbnusgb ybne td`bl tgneeb` sd`bkb

    rgaubn tblun mg subtu tdkpbt mg abegbn aukg gng, cdnmdrune bibn adradmb pdnbkpg`bnnybmgabnmgneibn mdnebn id`fkpfi kbnusgb `bgnnyb ybne tgneeb` mg abegbn `bgn aukg.

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    =

    2.1 _dnedrtgbn _rbsdhbrbl

    _rbsdhbrblbmb`bl gstg`bl ybne mgeunbibn untui kdruhui idpbmb kbsb mg kbnb cbtbtbnsdhbrbl

    ybne tdrtu`gs ad`uk tdrsdmgb. Xbkbn prbsdhbrbl mbpbt mgibtbibn adrku`b pbmb sbbt tdradntuinyb

    b`bk sdkdstb,nbkun ukuknyb mgeunbibn untui kdnebcu idpbmb kbsb mg kbnb tdrmbpbtidlgmupbn mg kuibAukg mgkbnb kbnusgb ku`bg lgmup.

    Abtbs bntbrb zbkbn prbsdhbrbl mdnebnzbkbn sdhbrbl bmb`bl ku`bg bmbnyb tu`gsbn. Lb` gng

    kdngkau`ibn subtu pdnedrtgbn ablwb prbsdhbrbl bmb`bl zbkbn sdad`uk mgtdkuibnnyb tu`gsbn,

    sdmbneibn sdhbrbl bmb`bl zbkbn sdtd`bl bmbnyb tu`gsbn. Adrbilgrnyb zbkbn prbsdhbrbl btbumgku`bgnyb zbkbn sdhbrbl untui sdtgbp abnesb mg mungb tgmbi sbkb tdrebntune mbrg pdrbmbabn

    abnesb tdrsdaut. Sb`bl sbtu cfntfl ybgtu abnesbKdsgr sdigtbr tblun =??? SK kbsybrbibtnyb

    sumbl kdnednb` tu`gsbn, sdlgneeb pbmb sbbt gtu, abnesb Kdsgr sumbl kdkbsuig zbkbn sdhbrbl.

    Xbkbn prbsdhbrbl mg Gnmfndsgb mgpdrigrbibn adrbilgr pbmb kbsb adrmgrgnybIdrbhbbn Iutbg,sdigtbr babm id-49 mgauitgibn mdnebn bmbnybprbsbstg ybne adradntui yupb ybne mgtdkuibn mg

    tdpgSunebg Kblbibk,Ib`gkbntbn ]gkurabru kdkbsuig drb sdhbrbl.

    Ibrdnb tgmbi tdrmbpbt pdngneeb`bn cbtbtbn tdrtu`gs mbrg zbkbn prbsdhbrbl, idtdrbnebn kdnednbg

    zbkbn gng mgpdrf`dl kd`b`ug agmbne-agmbne sdpdrtgpb`dfntf`feg,bstrfnfkg,agf`feg,edf`feg,

    bntrfpf`feg,bridf`feg.Mb`bk brtgbn ablwb auitg-auitg prb-sdhbrbl lbnyb mgmbpbt mbrg abrbne-

    abrbne mbn tu`bne-tu`bne mg mbdrbl pdneeb`gbn sgtus sdhbrbl.

    http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sejarahhttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alam_semestahttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kehidupanhttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bumihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sejarahhttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesirhttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerajaan_Kutaihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prasastihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sungai_Mahakamhttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalimantan_Timurhttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleontologihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronomihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biologihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antropologihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arkeologihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arkeologihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antropologihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geologihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biologihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronomihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleontologihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalimantan_Timurhttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sungai_Mahakamhttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prasastihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerajaan_Kutaihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mesirhttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sejarahhttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bumihttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kehidupanhttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alam_semestahttp://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sejarah
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    Aba 2

    Xbkbn Abtu

    Xbkbn Abtutdrhbmg sdad`uk `febk mgidnb` mbn b`bt-b`bt idaumbybbn tdrutbkb mgaubt mbrg abtu

    mg sbkpgne ibyu mbn tu`bne. Xbkbn abtu gng mgpdrgfmgsbsg `beg kdnhbmg = zbkbn, bntbrb `bgn8

    2. _b`bdf`gtgiuk (Xbkbn Abtu ]ub)

    Xbkbn abtu tub (pb`bdf`gtgiuk) mgsdaut mdkgigbn sdaba b`bt-b`bt abtu aubtbn kbnusgb kbsglmgidrhbibn sdcbrb ibsbr, tgmbi mgbsbl btbu mgpf`gs. Bpbag`b mg`glbt mbrg sumut kbtb pdncbrgbnnyb,

    pdrgfmd gng mgsdaut kbsbjffm ebtldrgne(kdneukpu`ibn kbibnbn), kbnusgbnyb kbsgl lgmup

    sdcbrb nfkbmdn (adrpgnmbl-pgnmbl) mbn ad`uk tblu adrcfcfi tbnbk.

    _bmb zbkbn gng b`bt-b`bt tdraubt mbrg abtu ybne kbsgl ibsbr mbn ad`ukmglb`usibn. Cfntfl b`bt-

    b`bt tsa bmb`bl 8

    2) Ibpbi edneebk, abnybi mgtdkuibn mg mbdrbl _bcgtbn. B`bt gngagbsbnyb mgsdaut

    "Clfppdr" (b`bt pdndtbi/pdkftfne)

    Mgnbkbibn ibpbi edneebk, ibrdnb b`bt tdrsdaut sdrupb mdnebn ibpbi, tdtspg tgmbiadrtbneibg mbn cbrb kdneeunbibn nyb mdnebn kdnedneebk.

    Ibpbi edneebk tdridnb` hueb mdnebn sdautbn ibpbi pdrgkabs, btbumb`bk

    g`ku prbsdhbrbl mgsdaut mdnebn clfppdr brtgnyb b`bt pdndtbi._dkaubtbn ibpbi

    edneebk mg`biuibn mdnebn cbrb kdkbneibs sb`bl sbtu sgsg abtu sbkpbg kdnbhbk

    mbn sgsg `bgnnyb mgagbribn bpb bmbnybsdabebg tdkpbt kdneedneebk.

    1) J`bids, ybgtu b`bt-b`bt idcg` ybne tdraubt abtu clb`cdmfn ybne mbpbt mgeunbibnuntui

    kdneupbs kbibnbn.

    Cgrg-cgrg zbkbn pb`bdf`gtgiuk bmb`bl 8

    Idaumbybbn kbsgl prgkgtgj mbn sdmdrlbnb

    Lgmup adrpgnmbl-pgnmbl (Nfkbmdn)

    Adrauru mbn kdneukpu`ibn kbibnbn (jffm _rfmucgne)

    ]drhbmg pbmb 4?.??? lgneeb 2?.??? SK

    Wbne tdrkbsui idaumbybbn pb`bdf`gtgiuk bmb`bl 8

    Idaumbybbn _bcgtbn mbn Idaumbybbn Nebnmfne

    Hdngs kbnusgb purab ybne mgtdkuibn bmb`bl8 _gtldcbntlrfpus Drdctus, Lfkf Ubhbidnsgs,

    Kdebntlrfpus _b`dfhbvbngcus, Lfkf Sf`fdnsgs. ]fifl pdndkunyb bmb`bl Zfn Ifdngeswb`m

    (2734).

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    1.

    Kdsf`gtlgiuk(zbkbn abtu tdnebl)

    _bmb zbkbn kdsf`gtgiuk mg Gnmfndsgb, kbnusgb lgmup tgmbi hbul adradmb mdnebn zbkbn

    pb`df`gtgiuk,ybgtu mdnebnadrauru mbn kdnbneibp gibn, nbkun kbnusgb pbmb kbsb gtu

    hueb ku`bg kdkpunybg tdkpbt tgneeb` bebi tdtbp mbn adrcfcfi tbnbk sdcbrb sdmdrlbnb.

    ]dkpbt tgneeb` ybne kdrdib pg`gl ukuknyb adr`fibsg mgtdpg pbntbg (ihfiidnkfmmgnedr)

    mbnefb-efb (bargs sfus rfcld) sdlgneeb mg `fibsg-`fibsg tdrsdaut abnybi mgtdkuibn

    adribs-adribs idaumbybbn kbnusgb pbmb zbkbn gtu.

    Bargs Sfus Qfcld

    Sb`bl sbtu pdngneeb`bn zbkbn kdsf`gtgi adrupbBargs sfus rfcld.

    Bargs sfus rfcldbmb`blefb kdnydrupbg cdruiabtu ibrbne ybne mgeunbibn kbnusgb sdabebg

    tdkpbt tgneeb`. _dnd`gtgbn kdnednbg idaumbybbnBargs sfus rfcldgng hueb mg`biuibn f`dlvbn

    Stdgn Cb``dnjd`spbmb tblun 271

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    Cgrg zbkbn Kdsf`gtlgiuk8

    b. Nfkbmdn mbn kbsgl kd`biuibn jffm ebtldrgne (kdneukpu`ibn kbibnbn)a. Adrauru mbn kdnbneibp gibn

    c. B`bt-b`bt ybne mglbsg`ibn nybrgs sbkb mdnebn zbkbn pb`bdf`gtlgiuk ybing kbsgl kdrupbibn

    b`bt-b`bt abtu ibsbr.m. Lgmup ku`bg kdndtbp (sdkg sdmdntdr) mgeub-eub (Bargs sfuc Qfcld)

    d. Mgtdkuibnnyb auigt-auigt idrbne mg pgneegr pbntbg ybne mgsdaut Ihfidn Kfnmgnedr (sbkpbl

    mbpur)j. B`bt-b`bt zbkbn kdsf`gtlgiuk bntbrb `bgn8 Ibpbi edneebk (_daa`d), Ibpbi pdnmdi (lbcld

    Cfurtd) _gpgsbn (abtu-abtu pdneeg`gne) mbn ibp