Major Plants of the Great Plains - Major Plants of the Great Plains Mike Haddock Amanda Gearhart...

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Transcript of Major Plants of the Great Plains - Major Plants of the Great Plains Mike Haddock Amanda Gearhart...

  • Major Plants of the

    Great Plains

    Mike Haddock

    Amanda Gearhart

    Amanda Gearhart

  • Rangelands of the North America

  • Grassland

    & Savannas

    Mediterranean

    Deserts &

    Semideserts

    Deserts &

    Semideserts

  • Rangelands of the Great Plains

  • Variation in Annual Precipitation Across U.S.

  • Great Plains

    Great

    Basin

    Hallock, Minnesota

  • = Major Rangeland Soils

  • Plants of the Great Plains

    GRASSES - - - - - - - - - ANDROPOGONEAE Big Bluestem Andropogon gerardii

    ANDROPOGONEAE Little Bluestem Schizachyrium scoparium

    ANDROPOGONEAE Indiangrass Sorghastrum nutans

    CYNODONTEAE Blue Grama Bouteloua gracilis

    CYNODONTEAE Buffalograss Buchloe dactyloides

    PANICEAE Switchgrass Panicum virgatum

    FORBS - - - - - - - - ASTEREA Missouri Goldonrod Solidago missouriensis

    EUPATORIEAE Dotted Gayfeather Liatris punctata

    HELIANTHEAE Prairie Coneflower Ratibida columnifera

    ROSACEAE Shrubby Cinquefoil Pentapylloides fruticosa

    ** All are Perennial and Native

  •  Large sodgrass with thick base

     Can have extensive scaly rhizomes

     Seedhead is a panicle with 2-6 digitate

    (finger-like) branches

    Andropogon gerardii

    ANDROPOGONEAE Big Bluestem

    Page 30-31

  • 2 florets per spikelet; one floret

    with awn, one infertile and

    awnless

    Andropogon gerardii

    ANDROPOGONEAE Big Bluestem

    Page 30-31

  •  Mid-sized bunchgrass about half the size of Big Bluestem

     Sheaths and culms flat

     Short rhizomes

    Schizachyrium scoparium

    ANDROPOGONEAE Little Bluestem

    Page 38-39

  • Schizachyrium scoparium

    ANDROPOGONEAE Little Bluestem

    Page 38-39

    Several small racemes in a panicle- type arrangement

    Each seed has a small “kinky” awn

  •  Large sodgrass

     With short, scaley rhizomes

     Auricles erect flanking ligule

    ‘rifle-sight’ ligule

     Short, soft hairs at the nodes

    Sorghastrum nutans

    ANDROPOGONEAE Indiangrass

    Page 40-41

  • Seedhead is a single,

    narrow, plume-like panicle

    Seed is light and fluffy with

    small awns attached.

    Sorghastrum nutans

    ANDROPOGONEAE Indiangrass

    Page 40-41

  • Bouteloua gracilis

    Cynodonteae Blue Grama

    Page 86-87

    Densely tufted plant with

    short, mostly basal, leaves

  • Bouteloua gracilis

    Cynodonteae Blue Grama

    Page 86-87

    Inflorescence has 1-3 (normally

    2) spicate branches (combs) per

    culm

    Spikelets are densely crowded

    on comb-like branches

  • Buchloe dactyloides

    Cynodonteae Buffalograss

    Page 92-93

    Shortgrass that is

    stoloniferous and

    forms a dense sod

    Male spikelets are

    arranged on spicate

    inflorescence branch

  • Male flowerFemale flower

    Buchloe dactyloides

    Cynodonteae Buffalograss

    Page 92-93

    Male & female on separate

    plants (dioecious)

  • Rhizomatous, tall grass

    with stout clums

    Tuft of hair at throat of

    sheath

    Panicum virgatum

    Paniceae Switchgrass

    Page 152-153

  • Seedhead is a

    broad and diffuse

    panicle

    Spikelets toward

    ends of panicle

    branches

    Each spikelet has

    one floret

    Panicum virgatum

    Paniceae Switchgrass

    Page 152-153

  • Solidago missouriensis

    herbaceous forb with erect

    stems arising singly from a

    creeping rhizome

    brownish or reddish stems

    leaves taper at both ends,

    entire or only slightly serrated

    leaves have 3 or more

    distinct veins parallel to

    margin; “road-map” venation

    ASTEREAE Missouri Goldenrod

    Page 254-255

  • inflorescence panicle-like with recurving

    branches (e.g. curved pyramidal

    inflorescence)

    member of the Astereae tribe of the

    Asteraceae family

    Solidago missouriensis

    ASTEREAE Missouri Goldenrod

    Page 254-255

  • Liatris punctata

    Surface of leaves

    distinctly punctate

    (dotted with little holes)

    Leaves linear & sessile

    Thick bulb below the

    soil surface

    EUPATORIEAE Dotted Gayfeather

    Page 262-263

  • Liatris punctata

    Purple/lavender flowers

    Flowers sessile on stem

    Flowers in axil of leaves

    Thick, punctate bracts

    EUPATORIEAE Dotted Gayfeather

    Page 262-263

  • Ratibida columnifera

    Leaves deeply cleft to

    midrib, with stiff hairs

    Stems from a woody

    taproot

    HELIANTHEAE Prairie Coneflower

    Page 280-281

  • Ratibida columnifera

     Ray flowers yellow or red

     Disk flowers brown and in

    a cylindrical column

    HELIANTHEAE Prairie Coneflower

    Page 280-281

  • Small shrub branching from base

    Red “shreddy” bark

    Yellow or orange flowers

    Pentaphylloides fruticosa

    Rosaceae Shrubby Cinquefoil

    Page 413-414

  • Yellow or orange flowers with 5

    petals

    Leaves pinnately compound

    with stipule at base

    Pentaphylloides fruticosa

    Rosaceae Shrubby Cinquefoil

    Page 413-414