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    Maintenance Strategy Selection: A Case Study

    SelimZaimMarmara University, Department of Mechanical Engineering,Goztepe, Istanbul, Turkey,

    selim.zaim@marmara.edu.tr

    Ali Turkylmaz

    Fatih University, Department of Industrial Engineering, Buyukcekmece, Istanbul, Turkey,

    aturkyilmaz@fatih.edu.tr

    Mehmet F. Acar

    Fatih University, Department of Management, Buyukcekmece, Istanbul,

    Turkey,mfacar@fatih.edu.tr

    Umar Al-TurkiKing Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Systems Engineering Department, Dhahran,

    Saudi Arabia,alturki@kfupm.edu.sa

    Omer F. Demirel

    Fatih University, Department of Industrial Engineering, Buyukcekmece, Istanbul,

    Turkey,odemirel@fatih.edu.tr

    Corresponding Author: Omer F. Demirelodemirel@fatih.edu.tr

    Acknowledgement:The authors acknowledge the support of both Fatih University and King

    Fahd University for their support. They also acknowledge the anonymous referees for their

    constructive comments.

    Abstract

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of two general purpose

    decision making techniques in selecting the most appropriate maintenance strategy for

    organizations with critical production requirements.

    Design/methodology/approach - The Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and the

    Analytical Hierarchical Process (ANP) are used for the selection of the most appropriate

    maintenance strategy in a local newspaper printing facility in Turkey.

    Finding - The two methods where shown to be effective in choosing a strategy for

    maintaining the printing machines. The two methods resulted in almost the same results. Both

    mailto:selim.zaim@marmara.edu.trmailto:selim.zaim@marmara.edu.trmailto:aturkyilmaz@fatih.edu.trmailto:aturkyilmaz@fatih.edu.trmailto:mfacar@fatih.edu.trmailto:mfacar@fatih.edu.trmailto:mfacar@fatih.edu.trmailto:alturki@kfupm.edu.samailto:alturki@kfupm.edu.samailto:oakkas@fatih.edu.trmailto:oakkas@fatih.edu.trmailto:oakkas@fatih.edu.trmailto:oakkas@fatih.edu.trmailto:oakkas@fatih.edu.trmailto:oakkas@fatih.edu.trmailto:oakkas@fatih.edu.trmailto:alturki@kfupm.edu.samailto:mfacar@fatih.edu.trmailto:aturkyilmaz@fatih.edu.trmailto:selim.zaim@marmara.edu.tr
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    methods take into account the specific requirements of the organization through its own

    available expertise.

    Practical Implications - The techniques demonstrated in this paper can be used by all types

    of organizations for selecting and adopting maintenance strategies that have higher impact on

    maintenance performance and hence overall business productivity. The two methods are

    explained in a step by step approach for easier adaptation by practitioners in all types of

    organizations.

    Originality/Value - The value of the paper is in applying AHP and ANP decision making

    methodologies in maintenance strategy selection. These two methods are not very common in

    the area of maintenance, and hence add to the pool of techniques utilized in selecting

    maintenance strategies.

    Keywords: Maintenance planning, AHP, ANP, maintenance strategy, strategy selection

    Article Classification:Case Study

    Running Heads:Maintenance strategy selection

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    1. Introduction

    The cost of maintenance is becoming increasingly critical with the increasingcompetition in

    the business environment. The competition is leading to more focus on cost reduction in

    operations and maintenance. Cost reduction may immediately be reflected on pricing and

    hence, gaining edge over competitors. Maintenance cost constitutes a major portion of total

    operations cost and hence is central to most cost reduction programs. Such programs should

    be done with care so that other requirements such as quality are not sacrificed.

    Maintenance costs can reach to 15-70% of production costs according to different sectors

    (Bevilacqua and Braglia, 2000). Moreover, maintenance directly or indirectly influences

    product quality, safety and reliability. Nowadays, maintenance is considered as profit

    contributor and partner for world class competitiveness (Waeyenberg and Pintelon.2002).

    Rausand (1998) identified the four probable consequences of failure, i.e. safety of personnel,

    environmental impact, production availability and cost of material loss.

    Maintenance is one of the most crucial issues in todays competitive manufacturing

    environment. Machine failure may cause various business related problems such as; missing

    delivery dates, loss of image and direct and indirect loss of profit and opportunity loss. As

    such, maintenance should be carefully dealt with in terms of planning, investment, and

    control. In terms of planning, appropriate maintenance strategies should be selected that are in

    line with companys global and operational objectives. However, maintenance strategies

    change rapidly with new options and practices. In fact any change in operations requires some

    adjustment or major change in the adopted maintenance strategy to be compatible with the

    new requirements. The selection process itself is becoming crucial for achieving highest

    performance. Such decisions that highly impact technology are usually dealt with in

    technically founded manner.

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    The motivation of this work is the existing need for some technical methodologies for

    optimum selection of the most fit maintenance strategies. In this research, two of the

    commonly methods fordecision making, namely the Analytical Network Process (ANP) and

    the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), are used for the selection of the best maintenance

    policy. The two methods are simple but powerful in making decisions at different business

    and functional levels under high complex and uncertain conditions.

    This paper is organized as follows. Firstly, literature review is written about maintenance and

    maintenance selection, then AHP and ANP are overviewed and proposed model is introduced.

    Lastly, case study is introduced in this paper. The method is demonstrated through a case

    study from local industry in Turkey. Results are discussed and benefits are identified.

    2. Literature Review

    Maintenance is classified into two main categories: corrective and preventive (Li, et al. 2006;

    Waeyenberg and Pintelon, 2004). Corrective maintenance is performed after system failure

    and preventive maintenance is performed before its failure (Wang, 2002). Corrective

    maintenance, also called breakdown maintenance, is the oldest strategy in the industry

    (Waeyenberg and Pintelon, 2002,Mechefske and Wang, 2003, Wang, 2007). For large profit

    margin organizations, this policy can be seen as feasible strategy (Sharma, et al. 2005).

    Preventive maintenance, in practice has two forms; periodic and predictive. In periodic

    maintenance, as the name suggests, maintenance is performed periodically to prevent sudden

    failure (Wang, 2007). This strategy is also called time-based maintenance and is used by

    many firms in the industry following manufacturers recommendations which sometimes

    results in unnecessary maintenance activities.

    In predictive maintenance, maintenance decisionsare made based on information collected

    from special measurement instruments like sensor systems, monitoring techniques, vibration

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    monitoring, lubrication analysis and ultrasonic testing (Wang, 2007). This strategy is also

    known as condition-based maintenance.

    In addition to these, opportunistic maintenance is used by some large scale industries such as

    petroleum and petrochemical industries. Bevelacqua and Braglia (2000) defined the

    opportunistic maintenance as maintenance can lead to the whole plant being shut down at set

    times to perform all relevant maintenance interventions at the same time.

    Studies on maintenance systems in practice show that some managers are unaware of the

    different types of maintenance policies (Shorrocks, 2000; Shorrocks and Labib, 2000) and

    selection methods.Luce (1999), Okumura and Okino (2003) presented the maintenance

    selection method based on production loss and maintenance cost. Azadivar and Shu (1999)

    showed the effective methods of selecting appropriate (optimum) maintenance strategies for

    just in time production systems. Bevilacqua and Braglia (2000) used Analytical Hierarchy

    Process (AHP) for maintenance selection in an oil refinery and they described some features

    in the selection of maintenance strategy, such as: economic factors, applicability, costs and

    safety. Al-Najjar and Alsyouf (2003), Sharma, et al. (2005) used fuzzy inference theory and

    fuzzy multiple criteria decision making methodology. Moreover, Mechefske and Wang

    (2003) showed a new method for selecting the optimum maintenance strategy and condition

    monitoring technique. Almeida and Bohoris (1995) developed a new method using decision

    making theory especially the multi-attribute utility theory. Triantaphyllou, et al. (1997)

    presented AHP model with four maintenance criteria: cost, reparability, reliability and

    availability. In addition to these, Bertolini and Bevilacqua (2006) proposed a combined goal

    programming and AHP for maintenance selection. Wang, et al. (