Mahamudra - The Method of Self-Actualization

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Transcript of Mahamudra - The Method of Self-Actualization

Mahamudra-The Method of Self-Actualization

Herbert V. Guenther

In

the Jungle of unknowing

Roam the deer of subJect-obJect;I I

From the bow of action-and-appreciatio11. shoot the arrow of reality. There die the fictions of the mind; eat the meat of non-duality

And taste it as pure bLiss-

This is Mahamudra realization.-SavaripaP

B UD D HIS M

the Indian context, the two postulates of eternal existence a parte ante and eternal non-existence a parte sunyata. the open dimension of Being, that becomes less open and vibrant gorical thinking gain with potentialities to the extent that the fictions and postulates g>of cate prominence. The "middle" view then is

avoidance of extreme judgements of eternalism and nihilism by which, in

emphasizes a "middle" view, which implies more than the mere

not only professes to be a "middle" way but also

'post

were indicated. '-'Middle" is a term for01

that words, just like concepts, change it and turn it into something other than it is, something itself. Another aspect of the "middle" view is that in it "the whole of the world is seen as a unity, a single rich live reality, which in no way else like it and yet something different from it

ability to perceive this open dimension, which is ineffable in the sense

the

implies a loss of ability to recognize the concrete. Let us take the percep

tion of a painting. The moment we approach it by declaring it to be "realistic", "surrealistic" or otherwise, we have cut ourselves off from the possibility of seeing it in its uniqueness. Instead of seeing it we merely

apply our classifications, comparisons, evaluations and other utilitarian categorical - thinking as ultimates, rather than understanding them as

purposes. In fact, we impoverish ourselves by taking the demands of symptoms or pressures towards fuller perception and appreciation. The is contrasted with "error" (tr'til-pa, some aspect, but merely to select

"middle" view, which perceives that which is in its intrinsic uniqueness,

distort still others. Lastly, the "middle"

one attribute, to reject others and to

'khrul-pa) which means not to perceiveview is a moment of highest To bring - about this vivid

ence that the term "mahamudra" is used.

happiness and fulfilment and it is with reference to such a great experi

6

The Tibet .tournaI

awareness is the aim of the various instructional methods that developed in course of time. However, it is not enough to have a vision of fulfil It is here ment, it is equally necessary to act on the basis of this vision, which means to be more perceptive in all one's dealings in life. that the idea of the "way" reveals its meaning as a process of self actualization whigh is inseparably connected with the "middle" view, just as the "middle" view is an incentive to self-actualization. In other words, "self-actualization" becomes an aid to full awareness and culminates in it; on the other hand, full awareness facilitates self-actualiz ation. In the one case, the full vision of reality is still a more or less distant goal, in the other, we retrace our progress from the valley to the peak through the fullness of awareness. These two aspects are represented in the Siitras and Tantras respectively. "Although there are many ways of dealing with mahamudra, two (are prominent) according to the division of (the texts into) Siitras and Tantras. The latter (discuss) the (feeling) of bliss and radiancy as they develop out of empathy in one's being. This is the Mahamudra of Saraha, Nagarjuna, Naropa, Maitripa, the quintessence of the unsurpassable Tantras as taught in the' realiz ations' and 'songs'. The former is the meditation on the open dimension of Being as taught literature." 2 The openness of Being which is said here to be the content of the meditative practice, is not an utter blankness, but something that is vibrant with life, because paradoxically it is nothing and yet something, a presence which is not a presence of something. The attention to the openness of Being is similar to the perception of an aesthetic object whose richness is an infinitude of possibilities; and the aesthetic experience of it can be a continuous delight. The attention to this openness, which is usually termed "meditation", is actually an intense and searching way of looking. The highest form of excitement generated by this process is felt as bliss, by which we understand on the one hand the elimination of any . distorting elements such as a limiting and classificatory concept or an emotion, and, on the other, the awareness of what there is as a unique instance. This is also the definition of Mahamudra by Pa-ma kar-po111

the prajnaparamitas and allied

(Padma dkar-po):"The openness of Being rich in most excellent potentialities is termed Mahamudra, because it offers unchanging bliss, in which there is complete elimination (of disturbances) and complete intrinsic awareness (of what there is)."J The association of this bliss with radiancy is highly significant. Radiancy is an aspect of excitation in living organisms. In the highest form of pleasurable excitation we literally light up with pleasure, shine with joy, and glow with ecstasy. Such radiancy is most noticeable in the

Mahamudra-The Method of Self-Actualization

7

sparkling of the eyes or in a glowing complexion. in what is described

Actually, what occurs a revitalization of

as "bliss and radiancy" is

the whole person. This revitalization takes place when the facade of socially accepted behaviour, erected on the conflict between conscious and involuntary processes, i.e., the ego-image militating against bioener ' getic responses, is demolished and a new structuring of personality emerges.

It is for this reason that the Tantric aspect is associated with such personsof mahasiddhas whose life- style is reported to have been quite unconven , tional. Bliss and radiancy as phenomena as Saraha, Naropa" Maitripa and others, all of whom belong to the group

of excitation belong, properly

speaking , to the "path" or process of self-actualization which is the capacity to hold and increase the level of excitation. The important point to note is that the "path" does not indicate a change from inertness to aliveness, like a machine when its motor is started, but is "the ongoing process of life and growth, the expansion and extension of our being. Actually, the "path" only indicates one aspect of being and it is only a figurative way of dividing life into a ground or starting point, a path, and ' a goal. Life or man's being cannot be divided, although it may be looked at from different angles. One such way of looking at Being is the ontolog ical approach, which is termed Tantra, another is the cognitive way, termed the "presence (i.e. being there) of mind", and still another one is the experiential way termed Mahamudra. Each of these technical terms needs clarification. The most comprehensive analysis of the meaning of Tantra is given by Long-ch'en rab-jam-pa

(KLang-chen rab-'byams-pa)

and can be graphic

ally represented as follows:4

species-wide

('Qng-bZhin)

inSicaI1Yeach of us

Tantra (Being) (don-gyi

'

unique to

rgyud)

literary works to elucidate Being (mtshon-byed Ishig-:i rgyud) ,

I) II)

dynamic_

/

(thabs-kyi 'Ud)

---

now

existing

a) eH:ortiess free-acting

(mtslum-bya)

i)

open possibility

\

(bad.med yeg:,o,l)

(stong-po)

b) effort-boundii) irradiativegradual

(gsal-ha)

(bad-meas rim-pal

8

The Tibet Journal

From the diagram it becomes evident that apart from being a collec tive name for literary works dealing with the technique for integrating man's two fold nature (what he is and what he could be), Tantra essential ly, is a name for this Being which is in part unique to him and in part species-wide, and which both

is,

that is, "natural", intrinsic, given, and

acts in

its actualization of itself. This explains the use of the term "self "

in "self-actualization", which has nothing to do with the postulates of idealistic philosophy. Applied to man as a living being, rather than as an abstraction, this means that man, in so far as he is, wants to know

how

to live, and this desire to know at once determines the meaning he attri butes to Being-as-such and to his particular being. In this desire to know, knowledge is not only presupposed but is even pre-existent, because this very desire is more concerned with the possibility of real knowing, uncon ditional being, than with postulates, conditional being and opinions about the latter's cognitions. In this respect absolute Being, that is, Being-as such, and knowledge-as-such are synonymous; the one cannot be added to nor abstracted from the other. Regardless of how this cognitive absolute ness will manifest itself as this or that particular knowledge, it remains commensurate with the mystery of Being-as-such, determining the char acter of knowledge in each individual case. Since the word "knowledge" is ambiguous, and in order to avoid confusion, the term "intrinsic aware ness" will be used when knowledge-as-such is implied. This leaves the term "knowledge" available for the various forms this "intrinsic awareness" may take: perception, judgement, "thought", or opinion. Not only do most indigenous texts distinguish between "intrinsic awareness" (rig-pa,

rig.pa)

and "thought" (sem,

sems),

the very definition of Tantra

brings out this distinction