Ma'aden Wa'ad Al-Shamal Phosphate Project

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DEPARTMENT: SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT NO: 60-R400-WH/G.06f/0073 REPORT TITLE: UMM WU'AL ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT PROJECT REFERENCE A03 PROJECT NO: 60-R400-WH PROJECT LOCATION: SAUDI ARABIA PROJECT TITLE: UMM WU'AL PHOSPHATE PROJECT CLIENT: MA'ADEN (SAUDI ARABIAN MINING COMPANY) CLIENT PROJECT NO 2-115-12-12-2-2 CLIENT DOCUMENT NO MD-513-000-HS-EN-RPT-0070 PM Authorisation: AD Rev Issue Date Pages Revision Description Prepared Checked Approved A01 7 Jun 2013 ALL ISSUED FOR CLIENT REVIEW CF AD AD A02 26 Jun 2013 ALL ISSUED FOR FEED FCL CF AD A03 29 Aug 2013 ISSUED FOR FEED FCL CF AD DOCUMENT ISSUED FOR: Preliminary For Information For Review For Use For Approval For Enquiry For FEED

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  • DEPARTMENT: SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL

    REPORT NO: 60-R400-WH/G.06f/0073

    REPORT TITLE: UMM WU'AL ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    PROJECT REFERENCE A03

    PROJECT NO: 60-R400-WH

    PROJECT LOCATION: SAUDI ARABIA

    PROJECT TITLE: UMM WU'AL PHOSPHATE PROJECT

    CLIENT: MA'ADEN (SAUDI ARABIAN MINING COMPANY)

    CLIENT PROJECT NO 2-115-12-12-2-2

    CLIENT DOCUMENT NO MD-513-000-HS-EN-RPT-0070

    PM Authorisation: AD

    Rev Issue Date Pages Revision Description Prepared Checked Approved

    A01 7 Jun 2013 ALL ISSUED FOR CLIENT REVIEW CF AD AD

    A02 26 Jun 2013 ALL ISSUED FOR FEED FCL CF AD

    A03 29 Aug 2013 ISSUED FOR FEED FCL CF AD

    DOCUMENT ISSUED FOR:

    Preliminary For Information

    For Review For Use

    For Approval For Enquiry

    For FEED

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    Project Name: UMM WU'AL PHOSPHATE PROJECT

    TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................................... 6

    1.0 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 25

    1.1 PROJECT UNDERSTANDING AND OVERVIEW ............................................................... 25

    1.2 UMM WUAL PROJECT SITE .............................................................................................. 26

    1.3 THE ESIA ............................................................................................................................. 27

    1.4 ESIA SCREENING .............................................................................................................. 28

    1.5 SCOPE OF THE ESIA ......................................................................................................... 28

    1.6 PREPARATION OF THE ESIA ............................................................................................ 29

    1.7 ENVIRONMENTAL PERMITTING....................................................................................... 29

    1.8 REPORT STRUCTURE ....................................................................................................... 29

    2.0 POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK ........ .......................... 33

    2.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 33

    2.2 LOCAL AND NATIONAL LEGISLATION AND STANDARDS ............................................ 33

    2.3 INTERNATIONAL GUIDELINES AND POLICIES ............................................................... 37

    2.4 OTHER STANDARDS AND GUIDANCE ............................................................................ 46

    2.5 RELEVANT ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES ................................... 48

    2.6 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS ............................................................................................... 53

    3.0 CONSIDERATION OF ALTERNATIVES ..................... .......................................... 54

    3.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 54

    3.2 PROJECT JUSTIFICATION ................................................................................................ 54

    3.3 DO-NOTHING OPTION ....................................................................................................... 57

    3.4 SELECTED SITE SUITABILITY .......................................................................................... 57

    3.5 ALTERNATIVES CONSIDERED......................................................................................... 58

    3.6 POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES ......................................................................... 62

    3.7 APPLICATION OF BAT ....................................................................................................... 63

    3.8 RESOURCE EFFICIENCY .................................................................................................. 73

    4.0 DETAILED DESCRIPTION AND LAYOUT OF THE PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT ..................................................................................................... 74

    4.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 74

    4.2 MAIN FEATURES OF THE PROJECT ............................................................................... 74

    4.3 PROJECT LOCATION ........................................................................................................ 75

    4.4 SITE LAYOUT ..................................................................................................................... 75

    4.5 SITE CONNECTIVITY ......................................................................................................... 80

    4.6 NEIGHBOURING INDUSTRIES.......................................................................................... 80

    4.7 PROJECT SCHEDULE ....................................................................................................... 85

    4.8 WORKFORCE AND NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES .............................................................. 85

    4.9 CONSTRUCTION PHASE .................................................................................................. 87

    4.10 PRE-COMMISSIONING AND COMMISSIONING PHASE ................................................. 92

    4.11 OPERATION PHASE .......................................................................................................... 93

    4.12 PRODUCT AND RAW MATERIALS STORAGE AND HANDLING FACILITIES .............. 120

    4.13 POWER ............................................................................................................................. 124

    4.14 WATER .............................................................................................................................. 125

    4.15 WASTEWATER ................................................................................................................. 131

    4.16 WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES ............................................................................... 134

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    4.17 SUPPORTING BUILDINGS AND INFRASTRUCTURE.................................................... 141

    5.0 IMPACT ASSESSMENT METHODOLOGY ..................... .................................... 142

    5.1 PROJECT SITE LOCATION ............................................................................................. 142

    5.2 IMPACT ASSESSMENT CRITERIA ................................................................................. 144

    5.3 IMPACT ASSESSMENT REPORTING ............................................................................. 148

    5.4 MITIGATION MEASURES AND REPORTING ................................................................. 148

    5.5 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................... 148

    6.0 AIR QUALITY AND METEOROLOGY ....................... .......................................... 149

    6.1 INTRODUCTION & SCOPE .............................................................................................. 149

    6.2 BASELINE CONDITIONS/ EXISTING ENVIRONMENT ................................................... 149

    6.3 AMBIENT AIR QUALITY ................................................................................................... 151

    6.4 IMPACT ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................... 159

    6.5 COMMISSIONING AND OPERATIONS ........................................................................... 163

    6.6 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS ................................................................................... 181

    6.7 MITIGATION ...................................................................................................................... 183

    7.0 TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT ........................... ............................................... 185

    7.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 185

    7.2 BASELINE CONDITIONS ................................................................................................. 185

    7.3 IMPACT ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................... 205

    7.4 MITIGATION ...................................................................................................................... 219

    8.0 BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES .............................. .................................................. 226

    8.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 226

    8.2 METHODOLOGY .............................................................................................................. 229

    8.3 ECOLOGICAL BASELINE ................................................................................................. 235

    8.4 IMPACT ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................... 250

    8.5 OPERATION...................................................................................................................... 260

    8.6 CLOSURE / DECOMMISSIONING ................................................................................... 264

    8.7 MITIGATION ...................................................................................................................... 265

    9.0 NOISE & VIBRATION ................................. .......................................................... 273

    9.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 273

    9.2 BASELINE CONDITIONS ................................................................................................. 273

    9.3 IMPACT ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................... 275

    9.4 CLOSURE / DECOMMISSIONING ................................................................................... 292

    9.5 MITIGATION ...................................................................................................................... 292

    10.0 WASTE MANAGEMENT .................................. .................................................... 295

    10.1 BASELINE CONDITIONS ................................................................................................. 295

    10.2 IMPACT ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................... 299

    10.3 MITIGATION ...................................................................................................................... 303

    11.0 WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT .......................... ........................................... 310

    11.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 310

    11.2 BASELINE CONDITIONS ................................................................................................. 310

    11.3 IMPACT ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................... 317

    11.4 MITIGATION ...................................................................................................................... 326

    12.0 SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS ............................................................................ 332

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    12.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 332

    12.2 PROFILING BASELINE CONDITIONS ............................................................................. 332

    12.3 BASELINE CONDITIONS ................................................................................................. 335

    12.4 IMPACT ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................... 346

    12.5 MITIGATION ...................................................................................................................... 352

    12.6 MONITORING ................................................................................................................... 358

    13.0 TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE .............. .............................. 359

    13.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 359

    13.2 BASELINE CONDITIONS ................................................................................................. 359

    13.3 NATIONAL BACKGROUND .............................................................................................. 359

    13.4 REGIONAL AND LOCAL BACKGROUND ........................................................................ 361

    13.5 IMPACT ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................... 367

    13.6 MITIGATION ...................................................................................................................... 373

    14.0 UTILITIES INFRASTRUCTURE AND USAGE ................ .................................... 375

    14.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 375

    14.2 BASELINE CONDITIONS ................................................................................................. 375

    14.3 IMPACT ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................... 377

    14.4 MITIGATION ...................................................................................................................... 383

    15.0 HEALTH AND SAFETY ASPECTS ......................... ............................................. 384

    15.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 384

    15.2 BASELINE CONDITIONS ................................................................................................. 384

    15.3 NATIONAL HEALTH ......................................................................................................... 388

    15.4 REGIONAL HEALTH ......................................................................................................... 395

    15.5 LOCAL HEALTH ................................................................................................................ 396

    15.6 HEALTH AND SAFETY IN CONSTRUCTION .................................................................. 397

    15.7 HEALTH AND SAFETY IN DESIGN ................................................................................. 397

    15.8 IMPACT ASSESSMENT ................................................................................................... 404

    15.9 COMMISSIONING AND OPERATIONS ........................................................................... 410

    15.10 DECOMMISIONING .......................................................................................................... 413

    15.11 MITIGATION ...................................................................................................................... 414

    16.0 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ........................... ............................................. 419

    16.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 419

    16.2 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CONTEXT ................................................................... 419

    16.3 ASSESSING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ................................................................ 423

    16.4 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ASSESSMENT OF THE PROJECT............................ 426

    16.5 SUSTAINABILITY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ..................................... 429

    17.0 CUMULATIVE IMPACTS ASSESSMENT...................... ...................................... 431

    17.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 431

    17.2 EXISTING AND FUTURE PROPOSED PROJECTS ........................................................ 431

    17.3 CUMULATIVE IMPACT WITH OTHER PROJECTS......................................................... 432

    17.4 CONCLUSIONS ................................................................................................................ 436

    18.0 SUMMARY OF IMPACTS AND MITIGATION ................. .................................... 438

    19.0 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMNS ....................... ........................................ 443

    20.0 REFERENCE LIST ................................................................................................ 449

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    APPENDICES APPENDIX A ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING PLAN (EMMP) APPENDIX B ENVIRONMENTAL EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN (EERP) APPENDIX C STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT PLAN APPENDIX D AMEBIENT AIR QUALITY ASSESSMENT APPENDIX E ECOLOGY SURVEY APPENDIX F NOISE MONITORING SURVEY APPENDIX G WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS APPENDIX H SOCIO-ECONOMI SURVEYS APPENDIX I - TRAFFIC SURVEY

  • Document Title. UMM WUAL ESIA Revision A03

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    Project Name: UMM WU'AL PHOSPHATE PROJECT

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    ES1.0 INTRODUCTION

    The Saudi Arabian Mining Company (Maaden) intends to develop the Umm Wual Phosphate Project in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This Project is based on the exploitation and processing of the Umm Wual phosphate deposit, taking advantage of existing and future railway infrastructure, linking the phosphate deposits of Umm Wual in the northern region with the Industrial City of Ras Al Khair on the Arabian Gulf (see Figure 1-1 below).

    ES1-1: Location of the Umm Wual Phosphate Project Sites

    The implementation of those elements of the Project to be developed at Umm Wual will increase fertiliser production and export from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    The Project will be part funded by international banks and export credit agencies from OECD countries and, therefore, the Environmental & Social Impact Assessments (ESIAs) have been developed with regard to international environmental standards, notably the World Bank Group, and specifically the International Finance Corporations (IFC), Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability (2012) and the Equator Principles (as reviewed in 2012).

    Due to the nature and scope of the Project, the assessment of the two main sites will be subject to different national regulatory requirements, namely the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) (for the development at Umm Wual) and the Royal Commission (RC) (for the development at Ras Al Khair). A separate ESIA will therefore be produced for each Project site.

    ES2.0 PROJECT DESCRIPTION

    The Umm Wual Mine and Waad Al Shamaal Phosphate Industrial Complex in the Sirhan-Turaif region of northern Saudi Arabia will include the following components: Mine, Beneficiation, Phosphoric Acid Plant, Sulphuric Acid Plant, Purified Phosphoric Acid Plant, Sodium TriPolyPhosphate Plant, Mono and Dicalcium Phosphate Plant and the associated infrastructure required to process the extracted ore.

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    ES2.1 SITE LOCATION

    The Umm Wual site (see Figure 2-1 below), is situated within the Northern Borders Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia close to the border with Jordan, and covers an area of approximately 58km2. The Mine is located close to the border with Jordan within the 10km border security zone and 26km to the southwest of the Iraq border. The proposed Waad Al Shamaal Phosphate Industrial Complex lies within the boundaries of the planned Waad Al Shamaal City development, 13km to the south of the Mine. There is also a well field area for the abstraction of water located approximately 60km to the east of the Waad Al Shamaal Phosphate Industrial Complex.

    The closest sizable population centre is Turaif, which is located approximately 40 km to the south-west of the site, and has a population of 48,929, of which 82% are Saudi nationals. The nearest settlement in Jordan is identified as Ar Ruwayshid, some 80-90km to the north.

    ES1-2: Layout of the Umm Wual Phosphate Project Si te

    ES2.2 CONSTRUCTION

    The construction phase of the project is divided into an Early Works Package, and main construction phase. The Early Works package allows the preparation of the site in advance of the main construction phase and will commence in September 2013. Works include grading and levelling of the industrial complex area, temporary roads, laydown areas, waste areas and construction camp areas. Temporary flood protection works are also required.

    A separate Construction Environmental Management Plan (CEMP) has been developed for the Early Works, to allow commencement of construction.

    ES2.3 MAIN CONSTRUCTION

    The process facilities will mainly be constructed using off site pre-fabrication, and modular construction. The infrastructure works will be constructed with local contractors, where available, undertaking specific aspects of the work. The construction works will be performed

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    in many areas at the same time to meet the required schedule.

    A construction camp area has been identified 5km to the south of the Industrial Complex area. The construction camp will include temporary site offices and associated facilities, accommodation area and communal facilities including recreational and sports facilities, kitchens and dining halls, laundry facilities, medical centre, and a mosque.

    The temporary facilities will include the storage of 2 days potable of water supply provided through delivery by tanker from Turaif, or via a locally sunk well. This water will be used for drinking, as well as for construction activities such as concrete mixing and dust suppression. Wastewater will be collected via septic tanks and emptied by tanker to the temporary wastewater treatment facility located within the construction camp. Power will be provided by diesel generators until the installation of a sub-station connecting to the national grid is provided.

    The construction schedule will generate vehicle movements to and from the site as well as within the construction site. Traffic movements are estimated to be:

    Maximum 250 vehicle movements for transport of workforce per shift;

    3 to 5 HGVs per day for supplies to the temporary camp and removal of waste;

    60 water tankers per day for potable water supply during the early works period (until the water treatment plant is functioning); and

    293 HGVs per week for materials and equipment supply to site

    Particular attention will be paid to areas which may impact or be impacted by the simultaneous development of Waad Al Shamaal essential infrastructure and phase 1 residential development.

    Anticipated solid wastes generated during the 30 month construction include concrete, pipework and steel off-cuts, electrical cable waste, municipal waste and solid sanitary waste.

    ES2.4 COMMISSIONING

    The main activities and sequence of operations during the pre-commissioning and commissioning phase can be summarised as follows:

    Hydrotesting of pipelines and tanks;

    Flushing & cleaning of pipelines;

    System dry-out;

    Inerting;

    Systematic conformity check of equipment;

    Static, de-energized test of equipment;

    Preliminary, and Functional checks;

    Operational test; and

    Pre-Start up activities.

    Hydrotesting of pipelines, tanks, and vessels will be conducted using fresh (desalinated) water, provided from the well sunk for the construction phase, or the Project wellfield, once operational. The total quantity of fresh water will be minimised through hydrotest water reuse. Discharge of hydrotest wastewater will be routed to the contaminated stormwater pond for testing prior to its reuse or disposal.

    ES2.5 OPERATION

    To support the proposed operations the Project provides infrastructure will include a wellfield supplying the Projects water demand, and associated water treatment, cooling water, loading / unloading, materials handling and storage facilities, auxiliary and emergency power,

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    wastewater treatment, drainage services and waste facilities.

    The Project also involves the provision of administrative areas such as offices, a training centre, workshops and laboratories, and the provision of housing and essential services for the Maaden staff who will operate the facility.

    Processes undertaken on site as part of the Umm Wual Mine and Waad Al Shamaal Phosphate Industrial Complex include:

    Open cast mining of phosphate containing rock by blasting, drilling and excavation of the rock.

    Separation of the phosphate ore from other rock constituents through flotation.

    Sulphuric A=acid production using molten sulphur, heated air and catalysts. The heat generated is used to produce energy enabling the Project to be largely energy self-sufficient.

    Merchant grade phosphoric acid production using rock slurry reacted with the sulphuric acid, and kaolin, before being filtered. The resultant phosphoric acid is evaporated to concentrate it to produce merchant grade phosphoric acid for export and use in other processes. Waste includes and phosphogypsum and fluorosilic acid which is neutralised with lime and gases which are scrubbed before being released to atmosphere.

    Merchant grade phosphoric acid is desulpherised, defluorinated and purified to produce food grade phosphoric acid. Solvent used in the process are regenerated and fumes are scrubbed and oxidised. Fluorosilic acid is precipitated out as sodium fluorosilicate, and phosphogypsum waste is also produced as a waste.

    Purified phosphoric acid is mixed with soda ash and caustic soda to produce a mixture of Monosodium Phosphate and Disodium Phosphate which is dried and heated to high temperature to produce dry Sodium TriPolyPhosphate

    Merchant grade phosphoric acid is also defluorinated with diatomaceous earth, and passed through a scrubbing system which generates fluorosilic acid, which is neutralised with calcium hydroxide. The phosphoric acid is combined with limestone slurry to produce phosphogypsum and a defluorinated phosphoric acid, which is heated and again reacted with limestone slurry and the recycle stream of Mono and Dicalcium Phosphate to produce Monocalcium Phosphate and Dicalcium Phosphate product.

    All gypsum and neutralised fluorosilic acid wastes are disposed of to a lined Phosphogypsum Storage Facility.

    Liquid sulphur required for the production of sulphuric acid, will be transported by rail to the Industrial Complex while soda ash, and limestone and other materials required for use in the chemical process will be transported by road. The processed materials will be transported by rail from the Umm Wual site to the proposed industrial complex at Ras Al Khair or to Jubail / Dammam for storage, use and/or export.

    Energy generated by the chemical processes in the form of heat and steam will be used to generate most of the power for the plant through the provision of Steam Turbine Generators. An auxiliary boiler for initial start-up of the sulphuric acid plant and emergency diesel generator for back-up and black start of the facilities will also be provided. The facility will however, also be connected to the national grid. All fuel storage tanks are bunded, to prevent pollution from spillages and any contaminated waters are to be disposed of at specialist facilities.

    Raw water will be abstracted from the Tawil aquifer to provide for the needs of the Project; following abstraction water will be pumped to the water treatment plant which uses reverse osmosis for the supply of process and potable water.

    In recognition of the scarcity of water in this region, and the low recharge of the aquifer, waste water volumes from all treatment process units have been minimised and re-used wherever possible. Brine generated by reverse osmosis is re-used as the medium within the brine open cooling water circuit, for slaking limestone in the fluorosilic acid neutralization plant within

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    phosphoric acid plant and as a dust suppressant at the mine. These approaches reduce the quantity of wastewater for disposal, and minimise the demand for raw water.

    The on-site Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant will condition any discharges arising before directing it to the water management system of the lined phosphogypsum storage facility for evaporation. The on-site sanitary wastewater treatment plant will receive all the sanitary effluent discharges from the wellfields, mine and Industrial Complex by a combination of gravity sewers, pressurized sewers and tankered waste imports. Domestic wastewater will be treated on site for use as irrigation water. Sludge will be dewatered for disposal to land as cake or at licensed facilities.

    Waste oil and engine coolant will be collected and held in separate storage tanks before being tankered offsite by a specialist contractor for processing or safe disposal.

    A significant quantity of solid waste will be generated by the Project. The on-site facilities include:

    Temporary Waste Rock Dump - waste rock generated during the first 5 years of exploitation through the mining operations will be stored in the north east of the mine area, prior to commencement of backfill operations. These will be removed and re-handled in Years 8 to 11 of production life to be used as backfill and provide access to underlying reserves. All run off from the temporary waste dump will be captured by perimeter ditches and pumped to the mine pit de-watering system.

    Tailings Storage Facility includes storage areas for tailings, stockpiling of optical ore sorter reject (OOSR) material which is used as top cover for dust suppression, storage for off specification tailings, and an evaporation / stormwater attenuation pond. The facility includes a basal lining system for drainage and collection of excess water released by the stacked tailings

    Phosphogypsum Storage Facility a lined facility designated for the receipt of phosphogypsum wastes and wastes associated with the neutralisation of fluorosilic acid. Residual brine, which cannot be reused, and any conditioned effluent from the industrial wastewater treatment plant is to be used as part of the slurry medium for the phosphogypsum and therefore will undergo evaporation from ponded areas of the stacks.

    In addition to the processing plant and mine, the Project includes a general administrative and maintenance area, which includes a number of support buildings as follows:

    Workshops and warehouses;

    Gatehouses and weighbridge;

    Administration building and clinic;

    Central Quality Control and Research and Development laboratories;

    Training centre;

    Cafeteria;

    Mosque; and

    Security and reception buildings.

    A portion of the Waad Al Shamaal City development will be constructed in parallel with this Project to provide permanent accommodation for employees who will operate the Mine and associated Industrial Complex, and their dependents. This comprises:

    Accommodation;

    Community facilities;

    Local roads and utilities; and

    A highway to connect the residential and Industrial Complex to Highway 85.

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    ES2.6 WORKFORCE

    During the construction phase, the workforce is estimated to be between 7,000 and 10,000 direct workers. Construction work week will be 10 hours / day for 6 days / week.

    During the operation phase, the Mine and associated Industrial Complex will operate 24 hours per day. In accordance with Saudi Labour Law, the proportion of Saudi employees is required to be 65% at the commencement of the project, rising to a minimum of 85% by year 5 of the Projects operation.

    Operations staffing is estimated to at least 700 individuals on site within any shift, working 8 hour shifts and 12 hour shifts. The operational workforce will be predominantly transported to site by bus.

    The number of daily visitors is estimated on average to be 4 persons per day, and up to 154 trainees attending training at the site with 116 Heavy Goods Vehicles (HGV) that will visit the site on a daily basis to deliver materials required for the operation of the Project.

    ES3.0 CONSIDERATION OF ALTERNATIVES

    The proposed Mine and Industrial Complex have been developed following the consideration of a range of project and design alternatives including:

    Alternate Project Do Nothing option;

    Site alternatives;

    Alternative production options;

    Surface / flood water management options;

    Pollution control alternatives; and

    Waste management alternatives.

    Potential social and environment factors were included in the identification and selection of alternatives during the front end design phase.

    In addition, as the Project progressed the proposed facilities were tested against Best Available Techniques (BAT), as required under the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment General Environmental regulations (2001), and the International Finance Corporation (IFC) Performance Standards.

    The IFC has defined, in Performance Standard 3, the following objectives for promoting efficient use of resources and pollution prevention:

    To avoid or minimise adverse impacts on human health and the environment by avoiding or minimising pollution from project activities;

    To promote more sustainable use of resources, including energy and water; and

    To reduce project-related greenhouse gas emissions.

    ES4.0 SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT IMPACTS

    The Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) for the Umm Wual Mine and Waad Al Shamaal Industrial Complex has been undertaken according to the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME) General Environmental Regulations (2001), and draft supplementary Standards (2010), and World Bank and IFC guidance. It has considered all potential impacts of the construction, commissioning, operation and closure / decommissioning of the Project on the environment, employees, and local community. Furthermore, it has also considered these effects in combination with each other and with other development in the area.

    The ESIA includes an Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan (consisting of a number of sub-plans), and an Emergency Environmental Response Plan,. These plan detail the measures identified in this phase for the mitigation of any impacts, and the measures for emergency preparedness in the event of an accident. In addition, Maaden will implement and

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    Environmental Management System for the project in line with international best practice. These plans are considered as Live documents, which are updated with any further recommendations identified in future phases.

    The results of the impact assessment are summarised below. Potential impacts predicted as being of medium to high significance were assessed against appropriate mitigation measures to predict the residual impact significance. Potential impacts of lower significance were also identified, and although specific mitigation measures are not required for these aspects, a series of recommendations which are considered as good management practices are identified. An overarching recommendation is the ongoing development, implementation and maintenance an Environmental Management and Monitoring Plan (EMMP) and Environmental Emergency Response Plan (EERP), both of which are provided in outline as part of this ESIA tailored to each phase of the Project.

    ES4.1 AIR QUALITY AND METEOROLOGY

    Impacts of the Project on air quality were assessed against current air quality conditions,. The contributions from the Project were compared as additional contributions to the existing situation to determine the overall impact of the Project on air quality.

    The Presidency for Meteorology and Environment has defined Air Quality Standards for a variety of potential pollutants from point sources, and ambient air quality. Point source emissions are compared to the more stringent of PME and IFC standards. PME standards are used to determine compliance with ambient air quality, since according to IFC local standards take precedence, and IFC are only used in the absence of local standards.

    The potential impact of greenhouse gases has also been assessed as required by the IFCs Performance Standard 3 and Equator Principles 2.

    ES4.1.1 RESULTS

    Concentrations of sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide generated by the Project fall below the PME Standards ambient air quality standard levels, and.remain below these when added to the background concentrations. Particulate matter is present in high background concentrations around the site; dominated by contributions from dust storms in the area. The results of the modelling indicated that the additional contributions from the Project will be minimal.

    The Project will generate emissions of greenhouse gases throughout its operation. The International Energy Agency estimated the total carbon dioxide emissions in KSA as 446 Million tonnes in 2010. Of this total, 104 Million tonnes were from manufacturing and industry.

    Wherever possible the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been reduced in all stages of the project. The utilisation of the waste heat, and steam from the process to power steam turbine generators allows the Project to be largely energy self sufficient, making a significant contribution to the minimisation of CO2 emissions.

    The total estimated CO2 emissions generated by the Project including operations and vehicle emissions would be approximately 77,706 tonnes per year. This falls below the 100,000 tonne threshold defined by the World Bank/IFC standards. In addition, the best available technology would be used for the Project which could further reduce total CO2 emissions in the future.

    There are no medium or high negative impacts identified by the Impact Assessment, however, a number of recommendations are made to address low significant impacts.

    ES4.1.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

    Recommendations for the construction phase are focussed on the reduction of dust impacts. These include:

    The development and implementation of a Construction Environmental Management Plan.

    All dust generating materials being moved to be covered with a suitable weighted

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    tarpaulin.

    Pedestrian routes within the construction area are to be provided for the workers.

    The amount of materials stockpiled to be minimised as far as is practicable, with any required stockpiles aligned parallel to the prevailing wind direction.

    Exposed soils / dust generating stockpiles to be covered with gravel or crushed stone where feasible to reduce windblown dust generation.

    The speed limit for vehicles to be reduced to prevent the generation of dust clouds.

    Damping down of road surfaces to be implemented.

    Uneven surfaces on construction traffic routes to be graded periodically.

    Recommendations for the operational phase are focused around the monitoring of emissions and include:

    Undertake monitoring of emissions as detailed by the PME with reporting to the relevant authorities.

    Appropriate maintenance of important mitigation equipment such as scrubbers, catalyst beds etc.

    Competencies and training requirements of staff with environmental responsibilities, and lines of communication in the event of an emergency (including accidental releases of hazardous substances).

    Minimising use of auxiliary and back up boilers.

    In addition, Maaden will undertake regular audits of environmental management plans to confirm their on-going effectiveness.

    Prior to the commencement of operations, ambient air quality data will be gathered and such data sets built on during the course of operations as appropriate.

    ES4.2 TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENT

    The Project area is currently an undeveloped site. The baseline assessment involved the analysis of soil and groundwater samples taken around the site. These indicated that soils are generally unpolluted. Levels ofselenium are below guide levels for industrial use, although are at or just above levels for residential. Low levels of naturally occurring radioactive materials are found to be present in the phosphate ore.

    Groundwater resources are present at the site.. The Tawil aquifer is the dominant source of groundwater in the area. The acquifer has limited recharge and therefore represents a finite water resource for the area. Analysis of groundwater samples suggest the water is slightly saline and would require treatment prior to use as potable water.

    The assessment of effects considers impacts from all phases on soils and groundwater using the source-pathway-receptor method, and includes some modelling of impacts on groundwater resources.

    ES4.2.1 RESULTS

    The impact assessment identified potential for impacts on the soil resources, and degradation of soil quality from accidental spills during all phases. The modelling, however, suggests that the release of pollutants from accidental spills is likely to be rare, and therefore the potential for impacts is reduced.

    There is also potential to impact the groundwater resources through depletion of the limited recharge aquifer impacting both on the long term water resources in the area, but also creating drawdown of the aquifer affecting other users.

    There is also potential for impacts during operation from leakage of chemicals from the plant

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    facilities or from catastrophic failure of the plant. The likelihood of this occurring, however, is very low.

    The following mitigation measures were identified to mitigate potential impacts of high or medium significance:

    Stockpiling of soils for reuse as part of the Project design to minimise impacts on soil resources.

    All storage tanks shall be above ground and maintained in good condition and inspected regularly. A record must be kept of all liquids/tanks/containers delivered to the site.

    All vehicles used on site shall be serviced and maintained to the highest standard, with a record kept of maintenance undertaken.

    Designated refuelling, maintenance and storage areas shall be constructed in line with pollution prevention guidelines. These areas shall be hard-surfaced and contained by walls or bunds, with drainage systems and collection arrangement for spills and stormwater management

    Hydrotesting, flushing and disposal of wastewater will be undertaken in line with appropriate measures to control, collect and treat the produced water.

    Wastewater should be treated where required to comply with water quality standards applied to discharge and as a minimum will pass through an oil/fuel interceptor facility.

    Any accidental spill/leak will be fully cleaned as soon as the incident occurs.

    Design shall be such that accidental release from bunded containment areas would still discharge to a site drainage system in preference to entering the ground

    Groundwater level monitoring shall be undertaken prior to and during the Project life.

    Waste materials shall be removed from site where possible following decommissioning. Any materials or plant to remain on site must be checked and contained/treated as necessary prior to site closure to ensure no potential soil contamination source remains.

    Drainage systems, including evaporation ponds shall be retained and shall continue to be maintained for a period after operations have ceased, while they are still producing significant potentially contaminative liquid.

    ES4.2.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

    In addition to the specific mitigation measures identified a number of good management practise recommendations have been identified to prevent and reduce pollution from accidental spills, and protection of the soil and groundwater resources. The focus of these are the implementation of procedures for prevention of and reaction to accidental releases of hazardous substances, the training of staff, and the implementation of monitoring of groundwater levels and quality during operation and following closure / decommissioning.

    ES4.3 BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES

    The Project is located within Northern Wildlife Management Zone, a designated International Union for the Conservation of Nature Category IV Protected Area. The Protected area covered by the Project is state owned.

    The area around the Mine site consists of a relatively flat area of sand sheet and gravel plains and low rock outcrops, with no significant tree cover. There are very few wells but herders are present near ephemeral pools with grazing sheep.

    A number of protected species are present in the project are. These include:

    Arabian wolf (Canis lupus arabs);

    Sand cat (Felis margarita);

    Blanfords fox (Vulpes cana);

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    Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga);

    Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug);

    Houbara Bustard (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii);

    Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus);

    Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus);

    European Roller (Coracius garrulous);

    Spiny tailed lizard (Uromastyx aegyptius microlepis); and

    Several species of reptile listed as High Conservation Priority.

    ES4.3.1 RESULTS

    The impact assessment identifies several medium and high significance impacts on both habitats and species from the project.

    The Project itself will result in the direct impact on approximately 59km2 of the designated Northern Wildlife Management Zone Protected Area. The loss of biological resources under IFC principle 6 requires consideration of appropriate measures to avoid or minimise impacts. Where this is not possible restoration of the area is required, or a biodiversity offset area provided if restoration of the area cannot be undertaken effectively.

    There are also potential impacts on protected species as a result of habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation.

    Project construction and operations may result in the killing and injury of species on-site, especially through vehicle movements. Pollution of the habitats, soils, and potential water resources from spills etc., are also significant impacts. Disturbance as a result of noise during construction and operation may also impact on certain species including protected birds.

    The following mitigation measures were identified to mitigate potential impacts of high or medium significance:

    Designate, demarcate and maintain unfenced exclusion zones adjacent to the Mine and Industrial Complex to protect sensitive habitats from unauthorized access to ensure no net loss of habitat functionality. This should be an equivalent area to that impacted (i.e. 59km2). Within this area undertake habitat restoration and rehabilitation works.

    Prior to site clearance and cut / fill operations complete a pre-construction site survey for globally / regionally endangered, vulnerable and / or near threatened species (i.e. Arabian wolf, sand cat and Blanfords fox). This is to account for any changes to the status of species as determined from the baseline surveys.

    Avoid areas where globally / regionally endangered, vulnerable and / or near threatened species are recorded as having a place of rest of shelter (i.e. den) during pre-construction site survey. Where avoidance is not possible, undertake displacement / exclusion measures to reduce impacts of killing / injury.

    Avoid Houbara bustard nesting period wherever possible (i.e. February - April), and if this cannot be avoided use bird deterrents prior to the commencement of construction activities to deter nesting birds.

    Provide signage warning of the presence of wild animals on haul routes, raise driver awareness and enforce speed limits for vehicles

    All contractors / employees shall receive a Site Induction which includes the ecological value and sensitivity of the Project area.

    Restrict vehicle movements to defined haul / access routes to minimise risk of wildlife collisions with vehicles.

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    All security fencing that is installed, other than around evaporation ponds etc., will allow for the passage of large lizards and medium sized mammals (e.g. sand cat, Blanford's fox).

    All industrial waste water treatment facilities, containment systems and evaporation ponds shall be securely fenced to prevent the ingress of mammal and reptile species. Use bird deterrents (i.e. predator kites) to deter bird species utilising these areas.

    Do not permit unauthorised access, recreational activities or hunting within habitat exclusion zones.

    Light pollution will be minimised by restricting lighting to essential areas only, and by using directional lighting to reduce light spillage. Working at night will be avoided and earth moving equipment will be fitted with more efficient sound reduction equipment wherever possible.

    Native plant species of local provenance shall be used wherever practicable to reduce the risk of transmitting biological pathogens and alien species. Implement a quarantine procedure for all plant specimens brought to the Project area.

    A Habitat Restoration Plan shall be developed for the phased rehabilitation of the Mine as extraction progresses throughout the life of the Project

    ES4.3.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

    To evaluate the success of the proposed mitigation a robust and comprehensive ecological monitoring plan will be implemented prior to the commencement of construction activities. The scope of this monitoring plan will be developed in full consultation between Maaden and the governing bodies within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Under this plan, sensitive ecological receptors and indicator species will be monitored to assess the effectiveness of the proposed mitigation measures in managing these impacts.

    Compensatory habitat equivalent in area to that being impacted (59km2) will be provided. This is to be in the form of unfenced exclusion zones to allow species to move across the area and which are managed to restore, rehabilitate and enhance their ecological value. A Biodiversity Management Plan will be developed to set out the measures required to enhance the ecological integrity and functionality of the habitats based on the findings of the ecological monitoring. The Plan will be reviewed and adjusted in line with any findings to ensure successful delivery of the objectives for the compensatory area.

    Maaden shall liaise with the Waad Al Shamaal City developers and Government bodies to co-ordinate provision of offset areas for implementation of habitat enhancement, protection and restoration / rehabilitation measures. This might include designating areas between the mine and Waad Al Shamaal City as protected areas

    ES4.4 NOISE AND VIBRATION

    Potential impacts of the Project on noise and vibration were modelled and assessed. The contribution from the Project was compared to the PME Noise and Vibration Standards for both daytime and night-time.

    ES4.4.1 RESULTS

    Baseline noise measurements taken at the Project site boundary are within the PME and IFC standards. The Project has been designed to comply with the requirements laid down in the PME general environmental regulations (2001) and draft Supplementary Standards (2012) and include measures such as housing of potentially noisy plant and equipment.

    As a result, the modelling shows that potential negative impacts are likely to be of low significance in all phases.

    ES4.4.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

    There are no specific mitigation measures required as part of the Impact assessment, however, recommendation include:

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    A revised noise and vibration assessment should be undertaken prior to construction to ensure compliance with applicable standards. This should include work to establish and ensure acceptable vibration and air overpressure during blasting operations.

    A series of trial blasts to be undertaken at the mine with measurements of vibration and air overpressure to inform the noise and vibration assessment.

    Temporary sound-proof enclosures and anti-vibration measures should be employed to reduce noise levels on site, in keeping with the results of the updated noise and vibration mode.

    A noise and vibration management plan should be developed detailing measures to monitor and control noise and vibration emissions during construction. This Plan should include monitoring of noise at the Mine site boundary, particularly the north western and western boundaries, to determine compliance with applicable standards and guidelines and assess the need for mitigation.

    Regular audits of the above monitoring and management plan should be undertaken and revised in line with results.

    ES4.5 WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Waste from Turaif is currently disposed of in a municipal landfill, located approximately 5km north of the city. However, access to this landfill has been denied for Project waste.

    The levelling and grading as part of the early works has been designed to ensure waste is minimised, and all materials are reused on site.

    The city of Waad Al Shamaal will include Class I, II and III landfills which are expected to be complemented by recycling and thermal treatment technologies. The Project proposes to use these facilities when they become available.

    ES4.5.1 RESULTS

    The impact assessment identifies medium significance impacts associated with the generation of wastes by the Project and the lack of available off-site waste management infrastructure during construction, and commissioning and early stages of operation.

    Waste types identified during this assessment include:

    Non-hazardous solid wastes: construction debris, wood (pallets), empty drums and containers (plastic and metal), packaging (paper, cardboard, plastics), waste rock from mining, silaceous materials and tailings, municipal wastes and sanitary waste sludges;

    Hazardous solid waste: batteries; filters; empty oil, chemical or paint containers; fabrics contaminated with oil; phosphogypsum, fluorspar, sodium fluorosilicate, calcium fluorosilicate, spent catalyst, spent activated carbon, spent electrical equipment, industrial wastewater treatment sludge, oily sludge and clinical waste; and

    Hazardous liquid waste: waste oils, lubricants and fuels and drainage waters contaminated with these, solvents; paint; thinners; hydraulic fluid; and cleaning chemicals; contaminated hydro-test water.

    The most significant wastes generated by the Project are to be managed on site as follows:

    Mine wastes are used to progressively backfill, and close the excavated pit.

    Optical ore sorter rejects, tailings and phosphogypsum, and fluorosilicates are to be stored in dedicated, lined and appropriately engineered waste storage facilities. These will remain on the site following decommissioning.

    All other wastes are to be stored on site temporarily in suitable storage containers / transported off site by PME approved waste carriers to off-site licensed waste management facilities.

    The assessment also identifies a high significance impact associated with the on-site waste

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    storage facilities associated with potential failure of these containment systems,

    The following mitigation measures were identified to mitigate potential impacts of high or medium significance:

    Maaden shall devise a waste management strategy for the disposal wastes in collaboration with Turaif Municipality, the PME, and Waad Al Shamaal developer which identifies appropriate local disposal / recycling facilities that are operated in accordance with regulatory requirements and industry good practise.

    EPC Contractor will develop a Construction Waste Management Plan, and Maaden to develop an Operational Waste Management Plan to identify in more detail anticipated wastes, and their quantities, and undertake waste planning for treatment and disposal.

    Maaden shall commission a condition report prior to decommissioning identifying key issues such as condition of lining and drainage system for the on-site waste storage facilities.

    Maaden shall develop further the outline closure plan to include maintenance programme, monitoring and reporting strategy and emergency action plan for the waste storage areas and shall resource and implement these plans.

    ES4.5.2 RECOMMENDATION

    In addition to the specific mitigation measures identified a number of good management practise recommendations have been identified reduce the impact of waste from the Project. The focus of these are the implementation of procedures for the management, maintenance and monitoring of waste storage areas, and prevention of and reaction to accidental releases of wastes, reduction of waste storage times, the training of staff, and waste contractors, the selection of appropriate and as necessary specialist contractors for the handling, transportation and disposal of waste and audit of waste contractors and their off-site facilities and the collection and reporting of data on waste arisings.

    ES4.6 WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT

    There is an extensive network of ephemeral wadis, and four in particular, that run across the Project area into a natural depressions in the landform. The wadis are wide shallow channels, apparent from the vegetation they support. These wadis present a flood risk to the project.

    Water samples taken from an accumulation of surface water in a depression fed by wadi flow in 2012 show high levels of heavy metals, which exceed the ambient surface water quality standards set by the PME. Soil samples in the area were taken as part of the ground investigation, and analysed for presence of heavy metals which identified concentrations of heavy metals within the superficial deposits tested. The levels of these are lower than international guidelines for residential use. Surface water quality analysis identified concentrations of some heavy metals in exceedence of the PME ambient water quality standards however, given the Greenfield nature of the site, the evapo-concentration processes highlighted by the leach testing, and the nature of the local geology, the levels of metals in the surface water are considered to be attributable to natural causes.

    Flood modelling has been undertaken, and a combination of protection (e.g. bunds) and wadi diversion will be required to protect the Project from flooding during heavy rainfall. With the exception of the one of the wadis (known as the middle wadi), natural restoration of channel will be allowed following closure / decommissioning. The middle wadi will be permanently diverted to allow for the development of the Waad Al Shamaal City.

    The tailings storage facility and phosphogypsum storage facility will be left in place and will require on-going management and maintenance to ensure that the environment is protected from contaminated discharges following decommissioning.

    ES4.6.1 RECOMMENDATIONS

    There are no specific mitigation measures required as part of the Impact assessment, however, recommendations for the prevention and reduction of pollution from accidental spills,

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    and protection of the surface water systems include:

    Provide training of staff in environmental awareness and pollution prevention, and lines of communication for accidental releases of hazardous substances;

    Construction of designated refuelling, maintenance and storage areas in line with pollution prevention guidelines. These areas are to be hard-surfaced and contained by walls or bunds, with drainage systems and collection arrangement for spills and stormwater management;

    Ensuring the availability of pumps and spill mitigation materials such as absorbent granules to contain and recover hazardous substances following release;

    Implementation of procedures to be followed in the event of accidental release of hazardous substances;

    Ensuring vehicles used to empty septic tanks are fit for purpose and operated by trained members of staff to prevent spillage;

    Ensure washing-out of concrete delivery, mixing and pouring plant and equipment are undertaken in a designated area and all wash water shall be contained for subsequent treatment and re-use and / or discharge;

    Undertake a programme of surface water sampling to establish the current ambient water quality, and monitor throughout project. Monitoring should be continued following decommissioning;

    Monitoring of treated sewage effluent quality to ensure compliance with required standards;

    Identification of suitable users and areas for the use of treated effluents and agree arrangements for its supply and/or application;

    Condition report to be produced before decommissioning identifying key issues such as condition of lining and drainage system;

    Implementation of a management plan prior to decommissioning of the facility, to include maintenance, monitoring and reporting strategy and emergency plan; and

    Regular audits of the above monitoring and management plan to be undertaken and revised in line with results.

    ES4.7 SOCIO-ECONOMICS

    The Project will provide many benefits to the region and to Turaif in particular. The new development will create greater opportunities for employment and for local and regional businesses to provide goods and services to Maaden, its contractors and its workers.

    Potential negative socio-economic impacts include loss of access to land for the local community, and increased strain on local services.

    A Stakeholder Engagement Plan has been developed as part of the ESIA and will be maintained throughout the project lifetime.

    The following mitigation measures were identified to mitigate potential impacts of high or medium significance:

    EPC Contractor shall develop and implement a procedure for the management of unexpected archaeological resources, and shall report any finds to Maaden and in accordance with National requirements.

    EPC Contractor shall provide the workforce with tool box talks on the subject to raise awareness of the importance of cultural and heritage resource finds.

    The EPC Contractor shall minimise the area of land required for use during the construction.

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    Maaden shall provide on-going community consultation and in particular provide guidance and assistance regarding use of alternative sites and respond to concerns in accordance with the Stakeholder Engagement Plan process.

    Maaden to enter into an agreement with Turaif Municipality regarding the capacity of municipal services to be supplied to the Maaden housing during the early stages of operation. Where capacity is not available, Maaden to establish alternative service provision.

    ES4.7.1 RECOMMENDATIONS

    Implementation of the following measures is recommended to manage the potential impacts identified and to maintain good management practices:

    Develop Social Impact Management Plans (SIMP) as required under Maaden Environment and Communities Assurance Project manual, and implement in full all identified recommendations;

    Employ local resources with skills to suit the required roles where available, and use local companies to supply goods and services wherever feasible;

    Implement a comprehensive training programme to ensure the appropriate skill sets are developed and transferred to new personnel;

    Induction training to be provided to all foreign and non-Muslim workers on the local culture and practices, and camp management procedures to be established to minimise interactions and possible tensions; and

    Seek to support employment in the region and within other Maaden projects following decommissioning of the Project facilities.

    ES4.8 TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORT

    The Project area is served by Highway 85, a dual carriageway which connects Dammam in the Eastern Province and the border with Jordan. A new junction off Highway 85 is currently under construction at Turaif.

    Public transport options for the region include a daily bus service operating between Turaif and Riyadh, and Turaif Domestic Airport, which is served by a single daily flight to and from Riyadh.

    The railway is currently not fully operational and no passenger service is currently operating. The Umm Wual Phosphate Project requires a length of 135km of track to connect to the existing railway at Al-Jalamid, which transports phosphate from the existing Al-Jalamid Mine to the processing plant at Ras Al-Khair. There are no medium or high negative impacts identified by the Impact Assessment, however, medium significant benefits are identified for the operational phase once the rail infrastructure for the region is completed.

    ES4.8.1 RECOMMENDATIONS

    A Traffic and Transport Plan will be developed as part of the Environmental Monitoring and Management Plan, prior to commencement of any activities on site. In accordance with the IFC Guidelines, Project vehicles will avoid accessing the public highway wherever possible. Where vehicles must use the highway network, access to the site will be routed via the eastern approach on Highway 85 to avoid impacts on the local community in Turaif.

    Further recommendations include:

    Co-ordination and liaison with the Airport authorities, operators, and Turaif Municipality to, to address any potential impacts from influx of workers to the area.

    Co-ordination and liaison with the Ministry of Transport, Saudi Railway Company, and the local authorities during all phases to ensure coordination of programmes and minimise use

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    of road transport wherever possible;

    Confirmation of capacity within the rail network and availability of trains to deliver materials required during all phases;

    Development and implementation of rail scheduling and operational procedures;

    Management of start and finish times to reduce peak traffic flows;

    Undertake traffic risk assessments during all phases and implementation of any recommendations;

    Identification of access / traffic routes for vehicles both on and to the site (including transport for the workforce);

    Implementation of measures to segregate pedestrians from vehicle areas;

    Implementation of driver training and awareness for both Maaden personnel and contractors;

    Implementation of measures to protect the local community where appropriate;

    Provision of suitable wheel washing equipment to prevent materials being deposited on the public highway;

    Re-use of materials on site to reduce the requirement to import bulk materials from other locations.

    ES4.9 UTILITIES INFRASTRUCTURE & USAGE

    Significant economic and environmental benefits can be achieved by minimising the use and consumption of utilities services. Direct savings can be realised by the reduction in energy consumption and water supply reduction through the minimisation of wastage and unnecessary uses. There are currently no utilities and infrastructure available at the site; new infrastructure will be installed to service the Project.

    Potential negative impacts of medium or high significance on the utilities infrastructure are not anticipated to occur as a consequence of the Project commissioning, construction, operation or decommissioning phases.

    ES4.9.1 RECOMMENDATIONS

    Implementation of the following measures is recommended to manage the potential impacts identified as being of low significance and to maintain good management practices.

    Confirm sufficient capacity within the Turaif sanitary wastewater treatment system/landfill to accommodate the wastewater / sludge generated at during the construction programme;

    Undertake monitoring of the temporary boreholes to supply potable and non-potable water for construction to ensure that these do not negatively impact the supply at existing wells used by the local population;

    Confirm the extent to which the existing telecommunications network can accommodate the connections required by the Project; and

    Maximise water re-use in construction and commissioning.

    ES4.10 HEALTH AND SAFETY

    The local facilities in Turaif comprise a general hospital with 200 beds, four operating rooms and one emergency room. The general hospital is capable of treating all injuries, with the exception of chemical injuries. There are also four general public health centres one of which operates a night shift, a dental clinic, and a diabetes clinic. In addition, there are three private health centres.

    The nearest large general hospital is located in the regional capital of Arar approximately

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    230km to the South-east. Recent investment in the region has enabled the construction and opening of a new cardiac centre at the hospital, providing a comprehensive cardiology service including cardiac catheterization and cardiac surgical operating facilities.

    The health and safety of both employees and the local community has been considered as an integral part of the project design. The design process has included HAZID workshops and a series of detailed HSE assessments has been made for specific parts of the facility as part of the Front End Engineering Design process. Eliminating or reducing the risk of many of the potential operational Health and Safety impacts has been a central theme in this phase.

    ES4.10.1 RESULTS

    Out of a total of 75,825 workplace injuries in KSA in 2010, approximately half occurred in the construction industry. 21% of all deaths in 2009 to non-Saudi residents occurred as a result of accident or injury. Consultation with Turaif Municipality highlighted that 50% of all deaths in the area were the result of Motor Vehicle Accidents.

    Potential sources of impacts during the construction phase include exposure to environmental factors (Air Quality, Noise, Water & Contamination), increased vehicle movement, Occupational Health & Safety of Construction Workers (including accidents and injuries, and mental health); and exposure to communicable and non-communicable diseases.

    The implementation of safety in design principles reduced the potential impacts during operation considerably. Those identified included exposure of the workforce to airborne pollutants and dust, traffic and transport (including community effects); occupational health, accidents and incidents; and communicable and non-communicable diseases.

    The impact assessment highlighted exposure of the workforce to workforce accidents, increase of communicable diseases amongst the workforce, and traffic impacts on the community as being of medium significance. Traffic safety impacts on the community were identified to be of medium significance.

    The following mitigation measures were identified to mitigate potential impacts of high or medium significance:

    A risk assessment will be undertaken which shall define the specific risks and mitigation, including working hours, exposure limits, and use of PPE as required.

    Early engagement with local service providers to assess the capacity of the region to absorb any potential issues should be undertaken, and this will inform the design and staffing of the facilities to ensure local services are not adversely affected. This consultation should include all emergency services to ensure agreement is reached on the most effective mechanisms to deal with any major incident

    Training and awareness on issues such as defensive driving will be provided to the workforce and suppliers

    Decommissioning will be planned by developing, procedures, and any HSE requirements to ensure the project is decommissioned safely and effectively, using the correct PPE etc in line with requirements and intended future use.

    Implementation of the closure plan and associated post closure monitoring and maintenance requirements.

    ES4.10.2 RECOMMENDATIONS

    Consideration is to be given to extending defensive driver training to the local community given the current high death rate from motor vehicle accidents.

    Implementation of a comprehensive health screening and monitoring programme is to be undertaken to ensure workforce health is maintained, and reduce the spread of any communicable diseases (e.g. chickenpox, TB, gastrointestinal infections etc.).

    The Environmental Emergency Response Plan will detail the procedures and process to be

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    Jacobs Doc N. 60-R400-WH/G.06f/0073 Date August 2013

    Project Name: UMM WU'AL PHOSPHATE PROJECT

    followed to protect both the workforce and the local community from potential harm in the event of an incident. This would include liaison with the local authorities to ensure services are (a) available, and (b) able to cope. Provision for evacuation to hospitals in Arar is also to be included for incidents which the on-site medical facilities cannot treat (e.g. chemical, burns, heart conditions etc.), and which may be time critical. Given the distances involved in any transfer to Arar, fully trained on-site medical staff will need to be able to treat to a level which allows safe transfer of the patient to the hospital facilities either through air transport or ambulance.

    ES4.11 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    The sustainable development assessment identified a number of positive and negative impacts associated with the project. These indicate that the Project faces a common challenge in terms of sustainability.

    Negative impacts are typically associated with environmental sustainability. The positive impacts, though fewer in number are of greater magnitude, and are associated with socio-economic and infrastructure benefits.

    The recommended areas of focus for the Project in terms of sustainability which are to be implemented in future phases include:

    Application of existing Maaden project processes, specifically the Environmental and Communities Assurance Manual; and

    Establishment of objectives, targets and key performance indicators to monitor achievement of the goals established for the Project and progress towards sustainable development; and

    Implementation of continuous improvements as identified by the Projects Environmental Management System and associated monitoring, measurement and auditing

    ES4.12 CUMULATIVE IMPACTS

    Cumulative effects occur within the Project when the impacts identified within the assessment may collectively be of greater significance than the individual impact implies. Potential impacts associated with the proposed development may also be acceptable in isolation, but when considered in the context of other developments in the immediate vicinity, may become more significant.

    Emissions to air from the Project can be expected to collectively impact on the air quality of the area, impacting the workers and community health as additional industrial facilities are constructed and become operational. It should also be noted that the development of the Waad Al Shamaal City Development and the community therein, will create sensitive receptors in the future that do not currently exist.

    Demand on the Tawil aquifer as a source of water is expected to be significant as the Waad Al Shamaal City is developed. This is a finite and non-renewable water resource given the extremely low recharge rates and the cumulative impact of the Project on the groundwater resource is considered to be significant. Alternative sources of water will need to be piped from the coast as the city develops.

    The development of Waad Al Shamaal City can be expected to result in further habitat loss and fragmentation within the Northern Wildlife Management Zone with increased disturbance, injury and mortality to Nationally and Internationally vulnerable species. The cumulative impact of the future project is therefore considered to be significant, although, the proposals to protect the Umm Wual mountain area as a recreation area could assist in protecting some of the vulnerable species and habitats.

    The influx of people into the area and the increasing industrial activity may present cumulative health impacts on both employees and the wider community. Furthermore the development of the industrial zones brings these impacts closer to the community zone. These impacts can be readily managed, through strategic planning and assessment of the Waad Al Shamaal City development

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    Project Name: UMM WU'AL PHOSPHATE PROJECT

    The Waad Al Shamaal City development is envisaged to generate a significant level of economic development, and provide a range of community services and infrastructure. Thus the positive socio-economic benefits are considered to the highly significant. The concerns regarding access to land for cultural uses will be exacerbated by the Waad Al Shamaal City development however, there are opportunities for access to alternative lands for herding and grazing.

    ES5.0 CONCLUSIONS

    The predicted impacts of the proposed Umm Wual Phosphate Project are within the standards as defined by the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment in their Environmental Regulations. Many of the impacts are of low significance.

    For those impacts identified as High or Medium, mitigation measures have been developed to further reduce the potential significance to Low.

    All mitigation measures and recommendations have been detailed in the Environmental Monitoring and Management Plan for implementation during the next phases of the project.

    The impact assessment identifies a number of areas where the impacts from the Project when combined with the proposed development of Waad Al Shamaal City, may result in significant cumulative impacts. These include:

    Air Quality Negative;

    Terrestrial Environment Negative;

    Biological Resources Negative;

    Community and Employee Health and Safety Negative; and

    Socio-Economic Aspects Positive.

    Of paramount importance is the continuous assessment of the environmental headroom, so as not to overload the carrying capacity of the area.

    As a key stakeholder in the Waad Al Shamaal City development, Maaden shall make this ESIA available for use in cumulative impact assessments of future project ESIA, and shall liaise with the Presidency of Meteorology and Environment, Saudi Railway Company and Waad Al Shamaal City developer to support collaborative and multi-stakeholder solutions for cumulative impacts.

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    Jacobs Doc N. 60-R400-WH/G.06f/0073 Date August 2013

    Project Name: UMM WU'AL PHOSPHATE PROJECT

    1.0 INTRODUCTION

    The Saudi Arabian Mining Company (Maaden) intends to develop the Umm Wual Phosphate Project in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This project is based on the exploitation and processing of the Al Khabra phosphate deposit and the utilization of captive natural resources in the northern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and is taking advantage of the existing and planned railway infrastructure, linking the phosphate deposits of Umm Wual area in the northern region with the Industrial City of Ras Al Khair on the Arabian Gulf (refer to Figure 1-1).

    Figure 1-1: Location of the Umm Wual & Ras Al Khair Phosp hate Project sites.

    Maaden has formed a joint venture with Mosiac, the largest producer of phosphate fertilisers in the world, and Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC) to deliver this substantial project.

    1.1 PROJECT UNDERSTANDING AND OVERVIEW

    The Umm Wual site in the Sirhan-Turaif region of northern Saudi Arabia will include the following components: Umm Wual Mine, and Waad Al Shamaal Phosphate Industrial Complex including Beneficiation, Phosphoric Acid Plant, Sulphuric Acid Plant, Purified Phosphoric Acid Plant, Sodium TriPolyPhosphate Plant, Monocalcium Phosphate / Dicalcium Phosphate plant and required utilities to process the extracted ore. The Processing Complex is located within the boundary of the proposed Waad Al Shamaal Development City.

    The processed materials will be transported from Umm Wual via existing railway infrastructure some 1500km to Ras Al Khair Industrial City, on the Arabian Gulf where materials will be further processed as fertiliser products or stored for export, or directly to Jubail or Damman some 70km and 145km further down the east coast respectively, for export.

    Ras Al Khair is an existing Industrial City and port facility located on a peninsula in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia; the facility will be expanded to include new chemical production plants for Ammonia, Di-Ammonium Phosphate and Nitro Phosphate Potash. Proposed developments also include all supporting infrastructure and connection to existing utilities within the Ras Al Khair Industrial City. For the purpose of this report the new developments

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    Project Name: UMM WU'AL PHOSPHATE PROJECT

    proposed by Maaden at Umm Wual will be referred to as the Umm Wual Mine, and Waad Al Shamaal Phosphate Industrial Complex (the Project).

    The industrial units to be developed at Umm Wual and Ras Al Khair will produce the following products:

    Merchant Grade Phosphoric Acid (MGA) 1,500,000 tpy;

    Purified Phosphoric Acid (PPA) 100,000 tpy;

    Sodium TriPolyPhosphate (STPP) 90,000 tpy;

    Monocalcium Phosphate and Dicalcium Phosphate (MCP/DCP) 250,000 tpy;

    Compound Fertilizer (DAP 2,228,094 tpy and NPK 766,920 tpy); and

    Ammonia 1,089,000 tpy.

    Maaden has awarded a contract to Jacobs Engineering Group to provide a bankable feasibility study and front-end engineering design (FEED) for both elements of the Project (i.e. Umm Wual and Ras Al Khair).

    Partnering with Woods Hole Group Middle East (WHGME), a Presidency of Meteorology & Environment (PME) and Royal Commission (RC) approved consultant, Jacobs scope of work includes the preparation of the bankable Environmental and Social Impact Assessments (ESIAs) for both the Umm Wual and the Ras Al Khair sites as well as the environmental permits required by the Royal Commission for Ras Al Khair.

    The Umm Wual Phosphate Project