Lower limb fractures types
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Lower limb fractures typesFractures Of The Femoral Neck (Intra-Capsular)
Gardens Classification: grade1: incomplete impacted fracture of the femoral neck.grade 2: complete undisplaced fracture.grade 3: complete fracture with moderate displacement.grade 4: severely displaced fracture.1+2 AO screws 3+4 - hemiarthroplasty
Clinically the patient complains of pain in the hip and the limb may be shortened and externally rotated.
Femur intertrochanteric (extracapsular)Less commonly associated with AVNMx dynamic hip screw
Femoral Shaft fracturesSpiral twisting w/ anchored footTransverse/oblique direct traumaCommunited/segmental
Supracondylar fracturesTransverse or communited
Tibial plateauOften from MVA, varus or valgus forceType 1: Wedge fracture of lateral tibial plateau. Lag screws alone suffice for fixation Type 2: lateral tibial wedge fracture with a associated depression. Fixation is with a buttressplate and bone grafting.Type 3: Depression of lateral.tibial plateau but no associated wedge fracture Type 4: Medial tibial plateau fractureType 5: bicondylar fracture of both plateau.Type 6: The hallmark of this fracture is the separation of the metaphysis and the diaphysis
Patella fracturesDirect/indirect trauma to kneeMost commonly transverse #, rarely verticalDisplaced fracture of patella treated with circalage wire and screws
tibfibFairly common cos tib is superficial, most common open fracture of longbone.Ring principleMost often spiral fractures from rotational force
Weber Classification Weber A Fibula Fracture below syndesmosis Weber B Fibula Fracture at syndesmosis, may tear ligament Weber C Fibula Fracture, above syndesmosis, ligament tornUnstable
AnkleThe ankle is usually injured by indirect forces with the foot either being externally rotated, inverted, everted or less commonly internally rotated on the tibia.
First degree: fracture of one malleolus, no talar shift with a stable ankle mortice.Second degree: bimalleolar fracture or a fracture of one malleolus with ligament tear leading to instability of the ankle.Third degree: trimalleolar fracture with instability in the mediolateral and anteroposterior direction.Fourth degree: supra-syndesmotic fracture of the fibula, possible tearing of the inferior tib-fibular ligament and diastasis.Fifth degree: vertical impaction fracture of the distal articular surface of the tibia.