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  • SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research

    Love Thy Neighbor – Religion and Prosocial Behavior Guido Heineck

    704 2014 SOEP — The German Socio-Economic Panel Study at DIW Berlin 704-2014

  • SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research at DIW Berlin This series presents research findings based either directly on data from the German Socio- Economic Panel Study (SOEP) or using SOEP data as part of an internationally comparable data set (e.g. CNEF, ECHP, LIS, LWS, CHER/PACO). SOEP is a truly multidisciplinary household panel study covering a wide range of social and behavioral sciences: economics, sociology, psychology, survey methodology, econometrics and applied statistics, educational science, political science, public health, behavioral genetics, demography, geography, and sport science. The decision to publish a submission in SOEPpapers is made by a board of editors chosen by the DIW Berlin to represent the wide range of disciplines covered by SOEP. There is no external referee process and papers are either accepted or rejected without revision. Papers appear in this series as works in progress and may also appear elsewhere. They often represent preliminary studies and are circulated to encourage discussion. Citation of such a paper should account for its provisional character. A revised version may be requested from the author directly. Any opinions expressed in this series are those of the author(s) and not those of DIW Berlin. Research disseminated by DIW Berlin may include views on public policy issues, but the institute itself takes no institutional policy positions. The SOEPpapers are available at Editors: Jürgen Schupp (Sociology) Gert G. Wagner (Social Sciences, Vice Dean DIW Graduate Center) Conchita D’Ambrosio (Public Economics) Denis Gerstorf (Psychology, DIW Research Director) Elke Holst (Gender Studies, DIW Research Director) Frauke Kreuter (Survey Methodology, DIW Research Professor) Martin Kroh (Political Science and Survey Methodology) Frieder R. Lang (Psychology, DIW Research Professor) Henning Lohmann (Sociology, DIW Research Professor) Jörg-Peter Schräpler (Survey Methodology, DIW Research Professor) Thomas Siedler (Empirical Economics) C. Katharina Spieß (Empirical Economics and Educational Science)

    ISSN: 1864-6689 (online)

    German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) DIW Berlin Mohrenstrasse 58 10117 Berlin, Germany Contact: Uta Rahmann | [email protected]

  • Love Thy Neighbor – Religion and Prosocial Behavior

    Guido Heineck*

    University of Bamberg

    September 19, 2014


    There is a long tradition in psychology, the social sciences and, more recently though,

    economics to hypothesize that religion enhances prosocial behavior. Evidence from both

    survey and experimental data however yield mixed results and there is barely any evidence

    for Germany. This study adds to this literature by exploring data from the German Socio-

    Economic Panel (SOEP), which provides both attitudinal (importance of helping others, of

    being socially active) and behavioral components of prosociality (volunteering, charitable

    giving and blood donations). Results from analyses that avoid issues of reverse causality

    suggest mainly for moderate, positive effects of individuals’ religious involvement as

    measured by church affiliation and church attendance. Despite the historic divide in religion,

    results in West and East Germany do not differ substantially.

    Keywords: Religion, prosocial behavior, Germany

    JEL-Classification: D64, Z12, Z13

    Acknowledgements: I thank participants of the Scottish Economic Society Conference 2012

    and of the annual meeting of the “Arbeitskreis quantitative Religionsforschung” 2013 for

    helpful comments on prior analyses.

    * Department of Economics, Feldkirchenstr. 21, Bamberg, D-96045, Germany, [email protected]

  • 1

    “How selfish soever man may be supposed, there are evidently some principles in his nature,

    which interest him in the fortune of others, and render their happiness necessary to him,

    though he derives nothing from it except the pleasure of seeing it.”

    (Smith, 1759, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, Part I, Sect. I, Chap. 1).

    1. Introduction

    Are people simply compassionate, as the opening quote by Adam Smith (1759) implies?1 Or

    are there other motives that explain why we behave prosocially? Numerous studies from

    psychology, the social sciences and, more recently, economics, attempt to answer this and

    other, similar questions which refer to other-regarding attitudes and behavior. Except for

    economics,2 individuals’ religion has always had a prominent role in this research area. This

    is unsurprising given that versions of the Golden Rule, “Do unto others as you would have

    others do unto you,” can be found in all major religions. It is therefore a straightforward and

    plausible assumption that religious individuals should be more inclined to behave in a

    prosocial way. Yet, across all the disciplines interested in this question, there is a wider and

    diverse range of theoretical approaches to explain the underlying mechanisms. This covers,

    among others, the Freudian perspective of religion as a means “to control the natural

    destructiveness of humans caused by their narcissism and sexual impulses” (Saroglou et al.,

    2005), but also rational choice theory (Iannaccone, 1995), from which it could be

    hypothesized that nonmaterial and humanistic rewards to religious rituals could maintain

    prosocial behavior that is beneficial for groups, communities or the society at a whole, but is

    costly for the individual (Paciotti et al., 2011).

    This study adds to the literature (1) by examining data on Germany, for which there is

    barely any evidence in this research area and (2) by looking at a set of partly under-researched

    outcomes that reflect both individuals’ prosocial disposition and their behavior. The German

    case is interesting because of its historical divide that also led to substantial and enduring

    differences between West and East Germany in individuals’ religious affiliation and

    participation. Figure 1 depicts the long run trend in religious affiliation for the whole country,

    1 As is well known, Adam Smith, however, also prepared the ground for the today still more dominant perspective in both the scientific community and the public of the individual as a fully rational and self- interested being. The presumably even better known quote from Smith than the opening one is: “It is not from the benevolence of the butcher, the brewer, or the baker that we expect our dinner, but from their regard to their own interest.” (Smith, 1776, The Wealth of Nations, Book I, Chap. 2) 2 For example, the “Handbook of the Economics of Giving, Altruism and Reciprocity” (Kolm and Mercier Ythier, 2006) with its comprehensive treatises of the economic approach to this research, does not even include “religion” as an entry in the subject index.

  • 2

    clearly indicating a secular trend. Whereas roughly half of the (West-)German population was

    either Catholic or Protestant between the 1950s and 1970s, the share of people with no

    religious affiliation has increased ever since. With a share of about a third of the population,

    the nonreligious group has recently grown bigger than each of the two major Christian


    – Figure 1 about here –

    Yet, there is a substantial divide in religious affiliation between West and East Germany: In

    West Germany, there is a more or less equal split in population shares between Catholics,

    Protestants, and others, including people with no religious affiliation. By contrast, only some

    five percent of East Germans are Catholic, less than 20 percent are Protestants, and about

    three-fourths of the East German population has any other or, dominantly, no religious

    affiliation (EKD, 2011). So, if there would be a connection to prosociality, the split in

    religious involvement between West and East Germany should also be observable in data on

    prosocial disposition and behavior.

    The empirical analysis in this paper is based on survey data from the German Socio-

    Economic Panel (SOEP), which allows analyzing both attitudinal and behavioral components.

    Moreover, the longitudinal structure of the data allows exploring the association between

    individuals’ religion and their prosocial behavior in a way that avoids simultaneity bias or

    reverse causality. As mentioned, and rather than looking at only one outcome, the analysis

    comprises several attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. The proxies for prosocial behavior

    used in this paper are volunteering, charitable giving, and blood donations. The attitudinal

    perspective is addressed by looking at hypothetical money donations and by the self-reported

    importance of helping others or of being socially or politically active.

    While the latter might only indirectly reflect individuals’ interest in social cohesion,

    volunteering, charitable giving and blood donations are highly relevant factor