Lorna Fitzsimons

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Energy and water: wastewater treatment Lorna Fitzsimons Matthew Horrigan, Edelle Doherty, Greg McNamara, Thomas Phelan, Dr. Eoghan Clifford, Dr. Yan Delaure and Dr. Brian Corcoran

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1. Energy and water: wastewater treatmentLorna FitzsimonsMatthew Horrigan, Edelle Doherty, Greg McNamara, Thomas Phelan,Dr. Eoghan Clifford, Dr. Yan Delaure and Dr. Brian Corcoran 2. Presentation overviewThe energy- water nexusEnergy requirements for water treatmentOverview of current EPA funded projectFuture work and conclusions2 3. Desalination3Sources: Adapted from www.desaldata.com and http://www.ges.co.il/ 4. 4Source: Hager-Elsasser WebsiteWater purification technologyEnergy (kWh/m3)ReferenceBrackish water RO (core process)1(Semiat 2008)Seawater RO with Energy recovery (core process)2.2 to 2.7(Semiat 2008, Macedonio, Drioli 2010)Seawater RO (all auxiliary requirements)5 to 7(Blank, Tusel et al. 2007, Macedonio, Drioli 2010)MSF16 to 20(Darwish 2007, Mabrouk, Nafey et al. 2010)MSF (all auxiliary requirements)38.5 to 125(Blank, Tusel et al. 2007)MED14(Mabrouk, Nafey et al. 2010)MED (all auxiliary requirements)32 to 122.5(Semiat 2008)Ultra-Pure Water RO (all auxiliary requirements)9.55 to 10.24(Hu, Wu et al. 2008, SEMI 2005) 5. Project overview: Improving resource efficiency in wastewater treatment plants5Source: http://www.rpsgroup.com 6. Description of work carried out to date6CharacteristicPlant EPlant FPlant GPlant HTreatment TechnologyASASASASInfluent CharacteristicsMunicipal domestic Wastewater onlyMunicipal domestic Wastewater onlyMunicipal domestic Wastewater onlyMunicipal domestic Wastewater onlyTertiary TreatmentNutrient reduction and phosphorous removalNutrient reduction and phosphorous removalNutrient reduction and phosphorous removalNutrient reduction and phosphorous removalDesign Capacity12000 p.e.12000 p.e.600 p.e.600 p.e.Organic loading8649 p.e. (2012)5853 p.e. (2012)604 p.e. (2012)673 p.e. (2012)Test FrequencyMonthlyMonthlyMonthlyBi - MonthlyCharacteristicPlant APlant BPlant CPlant DTreatment TechnologyActivated sludge with P removalPFBR (Biofilm)ASASInfluent CharacteristicsWastewater, imported sludge & landfill leachateMunicipal wastewater with storm waterMunicipal domestic Wastewater onlyWastewater and imported sludgeTertiary TreatmentSand filtrationNoneNutrient reduction and phosphorous removalDesign Capacity24834 p.e.750 p.e.186000 p.e.50000 p.e.Organic loading22440 p.e. (as of 2010)422 p.e.175000 p.e.35743 p.e.Test FrequencyMonthly3 times per year24 hour (Real time monitoring)24 hour 7. Energy audit: Plant D versus Plant E7Average energy use: 1381 kWh/day1 Blower on VFD running 24 hours a day (2 standby)Sludge drying infrequent during trial period28%7%18%4%16%27%Energy usage: Plant EBlowersFoul pumpRecirculationSR pumpsSludgebuildingOther69%16%8%3%1%3%Energy usage: Plant DBlowersOtherEffluent pumpsCentrifugeCentrifuge pumpsGrit blowerAverage energy use: 1895 kWh/day3 Blowers on VFDs running 24 hours a dayEffluent Pumps significant contributor 8. Conventional Aeration systems8Plant GPlant EPlant DPlant F0102030405060708090050000100000150000200000kWh/p.e. year of total influent to plantPlant size (p.e.)Plant FPlant EPlant DPlant G012345678020000400006000080000100000120000140000160000180000200000kWh/kgBOD total to plantPlant size (p.e.) 9. KPIAdvisor & KPICalc Toolkit Overview9Progress overview 10. LCA progress overview10050100150200250TotalElectricityLime(CaO)FerricchlorideTransportGlobal Warming Potential [kg CO2 -Equiv.]GWP per BOD050100150Global Warming Potential [kg CO2 - Equiv.]GWP per volume of InfluentPlant DPlant EPlant FPlant G0%20%40%60%80%100%Plant DPlant EPlant FPlant GGWPElectricityLime (CaO)Ferric chlorideTransportSodium hydroxide 11. Conclusions and future workThe energy-water nexus requires joined up thinking and a holistic approachBenchmarking energy requirements no one-size fits all simple metricFuture work: small-scale wastewater treatment plants (design and optimisation)11