Locomotion & Support

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Transcript of Locomotion & Support

CHAPTER 10: LOCOMOTION AND TRANSPORT

CHAPTER 10: LOCOMOTION AND TRANSPORT25

PART A: Activities Section

Learning Outcomes:- Describe problems that could be faced by humans and animals in support and locomotion- Explains how problems in support and locomotion are overcome in humans and animals

1. What is the difference between locomotion and movement?

Locomotion: ______________________________________________________

Movement: _______________________________________________________

2. Three types of skeletons in animals are _______________, ______________and

________________ _________________.

3. Fill in the blanks using appropriate answers.

Learning Outcomes:- Name the bones that make up the axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton of the human body - Label the bones, the skeletal muscles and tendons in diagram of the arm

- Explain how movement is brought about in a limb

The Vertebral Column 4. Fill in the name of general vertebral structure parts:

Name and describe special characteristic for each vertebrae1. Name: ______________________

Special Characteristics:___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

2. Name: ______________________

Special Characteristics:___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

3. Name: ______________________

Special Characteristics:___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

4. Name: ______________________

Special Characteristics:___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

___________________________________

5. Label all the structures:

Appendicular Skeleton

6. Name all of the appendicular parts.

The action of antagonistic muscles7. Fill in the blanks with correct answers.

Muscles Involved in Walking8. Please arrange back all the process according to the right sequence:

a) The whole sequence is repeated with the left leg

b) Next, the quadriceps muscle contracts, pulls the femur forward and extends the leg

c) The hamstring muscle contracts to pull the femur back and bends the knee. The leg is raised

d) When the extension of the leg is completed, the foot then regains contact with the ground with the heel touching the ground first. The weight of the body is now supported on the right leg

e) The calf muscle contracts and raises the heel

f) In doing so, it exerts a forward thrust by pushing the ball of the foot against the ground

g) As the right foot loses contact with the ground, the weight of the body is now supported by the left leg which is still in contact with the ground

1

2

3

4

5

6

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Appreciating A Healthy Muscoskeletal System9. Tick for the right statement and X for the wrong one.

1Clothing should not inhibit the movement of the body

2Keep the body adequately dehydrated during vigorous activities

3Exercising with objects tied around the waist, or with ill-fitting footwear can distort the posture

4Do not warm up before involve in sport activities because it will make you cramp

5Drink a fruit juice or a sports beverage if you are working out in hot weather

6Physical activities strengthen joint structures, increase muscular perfomance and delay the progress of arthritis

7Stilettoes should not be used for walking because the weight of the body is on the front part of the feet

8Taking adequate amounts of calcium and phosporus will help us maintain our musculoskeletal system

Supports in Aquatic and Terrestrial Plants10. Fill in the blanks:

11. Complete all articles using the words given:

A. The mechanism of locomotion in an earthworm

downwardsstronglowpressureaerofoiluppercoracoidbottomsternum forceliftsgliding

The locomotion of bird flight occurs through two ways, namely flapping the wings and __________. When flapping the wings _________ , the ________ and large pectoral muscles contract. Air resistance towards the movement of the wings downwards produces a force that acts upwards against the wings.

This force is sent from the wings to the ________ until the _________ and ______ the whole body of the bird upwards.When gliding, the wing acts as an ___________. Air moves faster on the _________ surface of the aerofoil. An area of ______ pressure exists on the upper surface and area of high pressure on the ________ surface.A lifting _______ is produced at the bottom of the wings and lifts the bird.

B. The mechanism of locomotion in an earthworm

shorterhydrostaticlongitudinalcavitycoelomcircularmuscles chaetae peristaltic

Earthworm have a _________ skeleton. The force is applied to a fluid-filled ________ called the __________. The ___________ is surrounded by two antagonistic layers of __________: the ___________muscles and the ___________ muscles. When the circular muscles contract, the longitudinal muscles relax. The earthworm becomes thinner and longer. When the longitudinal muscles contract, the circular muscles relax. The earthworm becomes _________ and thicker. An earthworm has _________ which anchor parts of the body to the ground so that the other parts can be pulled towards the anchored parts. During locomotion, the contraction and relaxation of both muscles produce a ____________ wave which begins at the front and moves towards the end of the body.

C. The mechanism of locomotion in a grasshopper

antagonistic

jumping

pulledextensor

flexor

propellingcontractsupwards extensor

A grasshopper has ___________ muscles called the flexor and ________ muscles which are attached to the interior of the exoskeleton. The rear legs of a grasshopper are adapted for ___________. When the _____________ muscle in the upper part of a grasshoppers leg ___________, the lower leg is __________ towards the body. When the ___________ muscle contracts, the leg jerks backwards, ____________ the grasshopper forward and __________ into the air.

C. The mechanism of locomotion in a fish

reduce

myotomes

sweepStreamlined

contract

pushingresistance

waves

backwards

A fish has a ____________ and slimy body to ________ water _____________ while swimming. Each side of the fishs body has __________ which are W-shaped muscle segments. Myotomes are antagonistic muscles. When the muscles on one side ___________, those on the other side relax. This produces alternating ________ of contraction and relaxation which pass down the myotomes on either side of the body to the tail. As a result, the different parts of the body __________ from side to side, ____________ the water ____________ and the fish forwards.

PART B: Structured Item Section

1. Figure 1 shows the arrangement of feathers and flight muscles of a bird

(a) (i) Name two other groups of animal that can fly.

_________________________________________________________________

(2 m) (ii) State two differences between the musculoskeletal system of one group named in (a) (i) and the musculoskeletal system of birds.

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

(2 m)

(b) State three body characteristics that enable a bird to fly in air.

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

(3 m)

(c) How does the arrangement of feathers on a bird help it fly in the air?

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

(2 m)

(d) Describe the characteristics of birds bones that allow the bird to gain elevation in the air.

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

(3 m)

(e) State one more feature of the bird that helps it to fly in the air.

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

(1 m)2.

(a) Name the type of joint shown in the figure.

__________________