Locomotion. Locomotion: the ability to move from one place to another Motile: capable of locomotion...

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Transcript of Locomotion. Locomotion: the ability to move from one place to another Motile: capable of locomotion...

  • Locomotion

  • LocomotionLocomotion: the ability to move from one place to anotherMotile: capable of locomotionSessile: incapable of locomotion; stationary

  • Advantages of LocomotionIncreases survival (avoid predators and dangers) Increase food opportunities Increase ability to find mates, shelter, water etc.

  • AdaptationsAlgae: some have flagellaProtozoansParamecium use cilia (hair-like projections)Amoeba use pseudopods (false feet)Euglena use flagella (tail-like projections)HydraMostly sessileContractile fibers used for somersaults

  • AdaptationsSome sessile animals use protection in large numbersCoral reefsOthers use chemical defensePoisons/toxins found in the stingers of jelly-fish and sea anemones

  • Human LocomotionInvolves the interaction of bones & musclesBones provide the structure and muscles provide the movement

  • Skeletal SystemHumans have an endoskeletonFunctions of bonesProtection of internal organs Support/shapeAnchorage for musclesLeverage for movement Production of blood cells (bone marrow)Store minerals (ex. Ca2+)

  • Organization of BonesNumber of bonesBaby: approx. 350Adult: 206Skeleton has two major subdivisions:Axial: central core (skull, vertebrae, ribs & breastbone) Appendicular: appendages; that which attaches

  • Axial Skeleton (80 Bones)Skeleton of the trunk & headSkullCranium (8)Frontal (1): foreheadParietal (2): above temporalTemporal (2): sides/templesOccipital (1): back of the headSphenoid (1): temple/eye areaEthmoid (1): part of eye socket

  • Skull cont. b) Facial (14)Nasal (2): nose bridgeMaxillary (2): upper jawZygomatic (malar) (2): cheek bones Mandible (1): lower jawLacrimal (2): eye socket (inner corner)Palatine (2): form hard palateInferior conchae (2): nasal cavityVolmer (1): nasal cavity

  • Skull cont.c) Ear bones (6)Malleus (hammer)(2) Incus (anvil) (2)Stapes (stirrup) (2)

  • Axial Skeleton 2) Hyoid (1): neck (non-cervical)doesnt form a joint3) Vertebral column (26) Cervical (7): neckThoracic (12): back of chestLumbar (5): lower backSacrum (1): fused lowerCoccyx (1): fused tailbone

  • Axial Skeleton cont. 4) Sternum & ribsSternum (1): breastboneTrue ribs (7 pairs): join w/ sternumfalse ribs (3 pairs): join w/ last true rib (not sternum) floating Ribs (2 pairs): dont join sternum

  • Appendicular Skeleton (126 bones) Upper extremities (64)Clavicle (2): collarboneScapula (2): shoulder bladeHumerus (2): upper arm Radius (2)Ulna (2) Carpals (16): wristMetacarpals (10): handPhalanges (28): fingers

  • Mrs. Coles sister w/broken clavicle

  • Appendicular Skeleton cont. 2) Lower extremitiesPelvic bone (3): ilium, ischium & pubisFemur (2): thighPatella (2): knee capTibia (2): shinFibula (2): lower legTarsals (14): anklesMetatarsals (10): footPhalanges (28): toes

  • Connective Tissues(other than bone) Cartilage: FlexibleElasticFibrousCushions jointsAn embryos skeleton is mostly cartilageAs development occurs, cartilage becomes bone (ossification)

  • Connective Tissues cont. Cartilage is found in adults:End of ribsBetween vertebraeEnd of bones (joints) Ears, nose & trachea

  • Connective Tissue cont. Ligaments: tough & elasticConnect bone to bone @ joints (knee, elbow etc.)Tendons: tough & inelasticAttach muscle to bone

  • Joints Place where two bones meet5 types: Immovable/fixed: no movement (ex. skull and pelvis)Hinge: back & forth motion (ex. knee & elbow) Ball & socket: one bone fits into another; movement in all directions (ex. shoulder & hip)

  • Joints cont. Pivot: side to side and up & down movement (ex. neck) Gliding: allows bending and twisting (ex. wrist and vertebrae)

  • Muscles Tissue made of cells capable of contracting and exerting a forceVoluntary: under conscious control (somatic NS)Involuntary: not under conscious control (autonomic NS)

  • 3 Types of MuscleCardiac: only in heartInvoluntary and cannot fatigue!Striated/striped

  • muscleSmooth (visceral):Found in walls of digestive tract and blood vesselsInvoluntary Appear smooth/not striated

  • muscleSkeletalFound fastened to bones of skeletonVoluntaryStriatedFunction is to move bones in a coordinated manner

  • Skeletal MusclesWork in antagonistic pairs (opposite directions) Ex. Bicep & tricepsBicep muscle bends/flexes: called flexorWhen bicep flexes, triceps relaxes (called an extensor) making it possible for arm to bend

  • Antagonistic Pair

  • Skeletal Muscle FatigueUnder normal conditions, muscle cells use O2 for energy (aerobic respiration) During vigorous activity, muscle cells can function for a short time w/ available O2 until supply cannot keep up w/ demand for O2 and cells revert to anaerobic respirationLactic acid builds up and causes muscle fatigue