Locomotion Locomotion Definition 127 Locomotion and...

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  • excerpt from the book: Marko B. Popovic, Biomechanics and Robotics, Pan Stanford Publishing Pte. Ltd., 2013 (No of pages 351) Print ISBN: 9789814411370, eBook ISBN: 9789814411387, DOI: 10.4032/9789814411387 Copyright © 2014 by Pan Stanford Publishing Pte. Ltd.

    Chapter 5.

    Locomotion

    Chapter outline:

    Locomotion Definition 127

    Locomotion and General Principles of Physics 128

    Physics of Locomotion in Fluids 128

  • Buoyancy 128

    The Bernoulli’s Principle 129

    Drag 130

    Viscosity 134

    Navier–Stokes Equations and Reynolds Number 134

    Locomotion in Fluids 137

    Locomotion in Fluids and Reynolds Number 139

    Aquatic Locomotion 140

    Aircraft Flying 142

    Birds Flying 143

    Drag-Induced Motion 143

    Biologically Inspired Ornithopters 145

    Ornithopters capable of carrying a human 147

    Flying Power Requirements: Flapping vs. Fixed Wings 148

    Bacterial Flagella and Biological Rotary Motors 153

    Physics of Terrestrial Locomotion 154

    Why Legs? 154

    Zero-Moment Point (ZMP) and Center of Pressure (CP) 155

    The Equivalence of the ZMP and the CP for Horizontal Contact Surfaces 158

    The Uniqueness of the ZMP and the CP for Complex Contact Topologies 160

    Centroidal Moment Pivot (CMP) Point 161

    Physics of Balance and Stability 162

    Human Walking and Optimal Trajectories 167

    Human Walking Energy Considerations 167

  • Angular Momentum 169

    Balance, Stability, Energy 171

    Spring Mass Model for Running and Allometry 172

    Allometric Observations 173

    Examples of Biological Legged Locomotion 176

    A Few Records in the Legged Animal Kingdom 176

    Various Gaits 179

    References and Suggested Reading 184

    [chapter content intentionally omitted]

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