Locomotion and Locomotion Locomotion and .Ackerman Steering Advantages: ... as equations independent

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Transcript of Locomotion and Locomotion Locomotion and .Ackerman Steering Advantages: ... as equations independent

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Locomotion and Manipulation Locomotion

    Amir Degani

    Intro to Robotics CS - Technion Winter 2012

    1 Parts of slides taken from Howie Choset and Matt Mason

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Todays outline

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality

    Locomotion Classification

    Wheeled machines Diff drive

    Skid Steering

    Omni wheels

    Tricycle

    Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints

    Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic

    Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    2

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Locomotion and Manipulation - Duality

    3

    Manipulation Locomotion

    Moving yourself from place to place

    Moving an object from place to place

    Is a person walking on a globe or person is manipulating the globe with his feet

    The two objects are moving relative to each other

    Loaned in part from Mark Yim: http://ai.stanford.edu/users/mark/loco-loco.html

    cars, trains, horses walking, a baby crawling, earthworms digging

    Hand manipulation Robotics manipulators Juggling

    http://ai.stanford.edu/users/mark/loco-loco.htmlhttp://ai.stanford.edu/users/mark/loco-loco.htmlhttp://ai.stanford.edu/users/mark/loco-loco.html

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Locomotion and Manipulation - Duality

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Robotic Locomotion Classification

    5

    Ground Air Water

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Robotic Locomotion Classification

    6

    Wheeled Legged

    Ground

    What about Rhex? or ModSnake?

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Robotic Locomotion Classification

    7

    Ground

    S.Roland, Introduction to autonomous mobile robots, , pp. 12-45, 2004

    Legged

    Wheeled on hard ground

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Wheeled machines

    Airtrax omnidirectional forklift

    Crusher - Carnegie Mellon University

    8

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Differential Drive

    9

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Differential Drive

    10 Planning Algorithms, Steven M. LaValle, 2006 Great online book!

    = , Angular wheel velocities of right and left wheels

    = > 0 = 0

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Differential Drive

    11 Planning Algorithms, Steven M. LaValle, 2006 Great online book!

    = > 0 = 0

    =

    2 + cos

    =

    2 +

    =

    .

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Differential Drive (continued)

    Advantages:

    Cheap to build

    Easy to implement

    Simple design

    Disadvantages:

    Difficult straight line motion

    12

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Problem with Differential Drive: Knobbie Tires

    Changing diameter makes for uncertainty in dead-reckoning error

    Pictures from Navigating Mobile Robots: Systems and Techniques Borenstein, J.

    13

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Skid Steering

    Advantages: Simple drive system Disadvantages: Slippage and poor odometry results Requires a large amount of power to turn

    MachineLAbs MMP-15 14

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Omni Wheels

    Advantages: Allows complicated motions

    Disadvantages: No mechanical constraints to require straight-line motion Complicated implementation

    Pictures from Navigating Mobile Robots: Systems and Techniques Borenstein, J.

    Morevac

    Moravac

    Airtrax 15

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Tricycle

    Advantages: No sliding

    Disadvantages: Non-holonomic planning required

    Pictures from Navigating Mobile Robots: Systems and Techniques Borenstein, J.

    16

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Ackerman Steering

    Advantages: Simple to implement Simple 4 bar linkage controls front wheels

    Disadvantages: Non-holonomic planning required

    17

  • Guest Lecture. Locomotion and

    Manipulation

    Locomotion and Manipulation Duality Locomotion Classification Wheeled machines Diff drive Skid Steering Omni wheels Tricycle Ackerman

    Non-holonomic constraints Legged Robots Static vs. Dynamic Passive Dynamics

    Climbing Robots

    Non-holonomic constraint

    So what does that mean? Your robot can move in some directions (forwards and backwards), but not others (side to side).

    The robot can instantly move forward and back, but can not move to the right or left without the wheels slipping.

    To go to the right, the robot must first turn, and then drive forward

    Taken from Principles of Robot Motion Choset et al. MIT press 2005 And Matt Masons Mechanics of Manipulation

    18

    Definition: A non-holonomic constraint is a limitation on the allowable velocities of an object

    This is most easily seen in wheeled robots.