Locomotion 1

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    SKELETAL SYSTEM

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    FUNCTIONS SUPPORT & SHAPE - organs and tissues of the body

    are held in place by the skeleton.

    PROTECTION provides a rigid surface for protectionof vital organs ie. cranium protects the brain

    MOVEMENT bones provide a base for muscleattachment. It allows movement of the body throughusing the bones as levers.

    PRODUCTION & bones provide a site formanufacture of red & white blood cells STORAGE - storage of minerals. Ie.calcium

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    Why do you need your bones?

    Your bones protect

    your other importantbody parts.

    Your bones give youshape.

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    My skull

    protects

    my

    brain.

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    My rib cage

    protectsmy

    heart

    andlungs.

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    What would you look like

    without bones?Without bones

    inside you

    to give you shape,you would be a

    BLOB!

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    Skeletons have 5 major functions

    Support & Shape

    Movement

    Protection of internal organs

    Produce blood cells

    Store materials

    SKELETAL SUPPORT

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    There are three main types of skeletons

    Hydrostatic skeleton

    Exoskeleton

    Endoskeleton

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    Hydrostatic skeleton

    Consists of fluid held under pressure in aclosed body compartment

    Protects body parts by cushioning themfrom shock

    Provides body shape, which can bechanged by contracting muscles in the

    body wall Provides support for muscle action

    Earthworms, hydras, and jellies havehydrostatic skeletons

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    The hydrostatic skeleton of a hydra

    Figure 30.2A

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    An earthworm

    Figure 30.1D

    1

    Longitudinalmusclerelaxed

    (extended)

    2

    Circularmusclecontracted

    3

    Bristles

    Circularmusclerelaxed

    Longitudinalmusclecontracted

    Head

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    Exoskeleton

    Rigid external skeleton

    It can be hard or leathery

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    The shells ofmollusks are

    exoskeletons madeof calcium carbonate

    The exoskeleton ofarthropods is madeof chitin

    Figure 30.2B, C

    Shell (exoskeleton)

    Mantle

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    Endoskeleton

    Consists of hard orleathery supporting

    elements situated amongthe soft tissues

    Most echinoderms,including sea stars and

    sea urchins, have anendoskeleton of hardplates beneath their skin

    Figure 30.2D

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    Vertebrate endoskeletons consist of cartilage

    or a combination of cartilage and bone

    Figure 30.2E

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    Human Skeleton

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    STRUCTURE OF SKELETON There are about 206 bones found in an adult skeleton.

    The bones are divided into two main groups

    (1) AXIAL SKELETON

    (2) APPENDICULAR SKELETON

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    AXIAL SKELETON

    The axial skeleton formsthe basic structure

    supporting the rest ofthe skeleton.

    It consists of: Skull

    Vertebral column

    Rib cage

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    APPENDICULAR SKELETON

    Forms mainly theextremities of thebody and their

    connections to theaxial skeleton

    Consists of

    - limbs (arms &

    legs)

    - shoulder and pelvic

    girdles

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    What can you do to take care

    of your skeletal system?

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    The end!