local production of fermented cassava flour Ludewa Njombe

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Transcript of local production of fermented cassava flour Ludewa Njombe

  • LOCAL FERMENTED FOOD PRODUCTS

    IN

    TANZANIA FERMENTATION TECHNOLOGY

    Fermented cassava flour as processed at Ludewa

    district Njombe

    Haule, Musa I (2016)

    Haule. M.I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • Introduction

    Cassava (Manihot esculent) is the one of the most

    important staple food crops grown in tropical Africa.

    It plays the major roles in effort to alleviate African

    food crisis because of its efficient production of food

    energy year round availability, tolerance to extreme

    stress conditions, and suitability to present farming

    and food system in Africa. Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of

    fermented cassava flour.

  • Introductioncontinued

    Locally cassava roots are processed by various

    methods into numerous products and utilized in

    various ways according to the local customs and

    preferences.

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • Introductioncontinued Improvement of cassava processing and utilization

    techniques would greatly increase labor efficiency,

    income, living standards of farmers and urban poor,

    enhance shelf life of products, facilitate their

    transportation, increasing their marketing opportunity

    and improve human and livestock nutrition.

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • Introductioncontinued

    To reduce poison/toxicity for bitter cassava,

    fermentation technology is effective by soaking

    peeled cassava for a long time until it ferment than

    when sweat cassava is used

    .The traditionally processing procedures aimed at

    reducing cyanide so as to improve storability,

    convenience, and palatability. Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • Introductioncontinued

    Processing of cassava by fermentation method

    produces a product with different texture, flavor,

    aroma and other sensory properties.

    Bitter cassava produces 400mg of cyanogenic

    glycosides per kg eight times more than sweat

    cassava.

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of

    fermented cassava flour.

  • Introductioncontinued

    Locally aerobic type of fermentation is applied to the

    peeled cassava root to allow the product to ferment

    in a clay pot (local fermentation vessel).

    Therefore, there are several unit operations applied

    which are as follows:

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • Unit operation for the production of

    cassava flour by local fermentation

    technology

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • I. Harvesting The fact of producing a quality product is

    accompanied by having quality raw materials.

    The appropriate sensory parameters to the raw

    material such as size, presence or absence of mould

    and or fungi.

    Manually cassava roots are harvested from the farm

    and transported to home where other operations are

    continued Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • II. Peeling

    This refers to as the removal of outer layer of

    cassava roots,

    It also aimed at reducing cyanide from the product

    since some it is presumed to concentrate into the

    peels

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • III. Washing

    For the good manufacturing procedures (GMP),

    before further processing, the peeled cassava roots

    have to be washed in water so as to remove debris,

    soil and soil organism.

    This process assure the quality product is produced

    and further the fermentation process will undergo

    well (the presence of other microorganism and or

    poison will inhibit effectiveness of the process. Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • IV. Soaking/Fermentation

    This is where the raw material (peeled cassava

    roots) changes their physical and chemical

    properties such as aroma, flavor, acidity properties,

    texture and color

    .

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • Soaking/Fermentation..continued

    The clay pot which is used as fermentation vessel is

    cleaned and then filled with sanitary water, the

    peeled cassava is the put into the clay pot

    containing water.

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • Soaking/Fermentation.continued

    The process is done by covering all peeled

    cassava with water and half covering the clay pot by

    bamboo tray.

    During this process, the peeled cassava is allowed

    to ferment in the clay pots for three (3) days for the

    maximum fermentation process to achieve the

    desired properties.

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • Soaking/Fermentation.continued

    Therefore poisonous chemicals from the cassava

    (cyanide) are absorbed by water and thus the

    bitterness of cassava is reduced.

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • Soaking/Fermentation.continued

    Figure 1: Traditional fermenter (clay pot) filled with

    peeled cassava, day 1 Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of

    fermented cassava flour.

  • Soaking/Fermentation.continued

    As the process continues, the bubbles are produced

    on top of the vessel.

    This proves that there are the gases which are

    produced during the process.

    And the aroma also changes, which proves to the

    effectiveness of fermentation process and further

    quality product. Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of

    fermented cassava flour.

  • V. Pressing

    After 3 days of fermentation, the fermented peeled

    cassava roots are removed from the vessel and

    pressed to remove water (This process is sometime

    known as coarse milling).

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • Pressingcontinued

    The process is done by putting the fermented peeled cassava into plastic bags (25kgs) and either

    by twisting them or by putting logs or stones on the

    bags containing the fermented peeled cassava.

    Water containing cyanide and other chemicals are

    removed and the product taste sweater than before

    it has been soaked (fermented) for the bitter

    cassava.

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of

    fermented cassava flour.

  • VI. Drying

    Traditionally, the fermented peeled cassava roots

    after fermentation and pressing, they are allowed to

    dry (sun drying) on the bamboo mates for 3-4 days

    during summer and 4-5 days during winter.

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • Figure 2: Sun drying (pressed cassava) at rural Ludewa

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • VII. Milling

    During milling process (sometime is known as fine

    milling); fine powder is obtained by placing the dried

    cassava into a milling machine.

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • VIII. Storage

    Locally, the milled cassava is stored into plastic

    bags or plastic buckets. This can handle its quality

    for one week without sun drying and if it is available

    it can be dried and increase its shelf life

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.

  • Conclusion

    Since fermentation of cassava is aimed at reducing

    cyanide level and adding value on cassava flour,

    therefore the development of traditional

    fermentation technology is not enough for best

    quality cassava flour to be produced as per value

    addition so as to increase the market demand of

    local fermented food products.

    Haule, Musa I. (2016). Local production of fermented cassava flour.