Literature review on the impacts on Environment ... Literature review on the impacts on Environment

download Literature review on the impacts on Environment ... Literature review on the impacts on Environment

of 202

  • date post

    07-Apr-2020
  • Category

    Documents

  • view

    2
  • download

    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Literature review on the impacts on Environment ... Literature review on the impacts on Environment

  • i

    Literature review on the impacts on Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth) protected species by large mid-water trawl

    vessels.

    Prepared for

    The Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities on behalf of the Expert Panel on a Declared Commercial Fishing Activity.

    GPO Box 787, Canberra, ACT, 2601

    6 March 2015 PROJECT REFERENCE: JN13076

    Elgin Associates Pty Ltd

    ABN 59123488639

  • ii

    Document Information

    Authors: Luke Finley (Elgin Associates Pty Ltd)

    Rebecca McIntosh (Elgin Associates Pty Ltd)

    Sheryl Hamilton (Latitude 42 Environmental Consultants Pty Ltd)

    Barry Baker (Latitude 42 Environmental Consultants Pty Ltd)

    Citation: Finley, L., McIntosh, R., Hamilton, S. and Baker, B. (2013). Literature Review on the impacts on Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth) protected species by large mid-water trawl vessels.’ Report prepared by Elgin Associates for the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities (on behalf of the expert panel) 17 June 2013.

    Submission Date: 6 March 2015

    Project: Elgin JN13076: Literature Review: Impacts on Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 protected species by large mid-water trawl vessels

    Contact: Elgin Associates Pty Ltd ABN 59123488639 Level 4, 11 Morrison St, Hobart, TAS, 7000 Telephone: +61 417 598807 Fax: +61 3 86486336 www.elgin.com.au

    Record of Report Distribution

    No of copies

    Status Date Prepared for:

    1 Digital Draft 27 May 2013 Expert Panel

    1 Digital Final (Rev1) 17 June 2013 Expert Panel

    1 Digital Final (Rev2) 6 March 2015 Department of the Environment

    1 Digital Final (Rev2) 9 July 2015 Department of the Environment (public release)

  • iii

    Contents

    1 Pinnipeds ....................................................................................................................................... 1 1.1 Brief Description ................................................................................................................................ 3 1.2 Pinnipeds at risk of interactions with large pelagic trawlers in Australian waters ........................... 3

    1.2.1 Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) ............................................................... 3 1.2.2 New Zealand fur seal (Arctophoca forsteri) ............................................................................... 4 1.2.3 Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea) ..................................................................................... 5 1.2.4 Southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina).............................................................................. 7

    1.3 Conservation status of the species nationally ................................................................................... 9 1.4 Description of the nature and extent of interactions between trawl fisheries and group/species ... 9

    1.4.1 Incidental bycatch in fisheries ................................................................................................... 9 1.4.2 Entanglement in discarded netting ........................................................................................... 9 1.4.3 Prey depletion and habitat degradation ................................................................................. 10 1.4.4 Changes to pinniped behaviour during or following fishing activities .................................... 11 1.4.5 Illegal culling ............................................................................................................................ 11

    1.5 International interactions between pinnipeds and trawl fisheries .................................................. 11 1.5.1 What is the result of interactions between group and trawl gear/fishing operations ........... 11 1.5.2 International - South America, South Africa, United States of America ................................. 12 1.5.3 International - New Zealand .................................................................................................... 13

    1.6 Australian interactions between pinnipeds and trawl fisheries ...................................................... 16 1.6.1 Southern and Eastern Scalefish and Shark Fishery (SESSF) ..................................................... 17 1.6.2 Small Pelagic Fishery (SPF) ....................................................................................................... 19

    1.7 Are there any bycatch mitigation devices or measures? ................................................................. 19 1.7.1 Exclusion devices ..................................................................................................................... 20 1.7.2 Observer programs, Bycatch Limits, Codes of Conduct, Vessel Management Plans and Spatial and Temporal fishery closures ................................................................................................................ 24 1.7.3 Has the effectiveness of mitigation measures being investigated? ........................................ 26 1.7.4 Are there organisations working on mitigation? ..................................................................... 33

    1.8 Recommended management needs and research ideas ................................................................. 33 1.9 Limitations in the review process .................................................................................................... 35 1.10 References (Pinnipeds) ..................................................................................................................... 36

    2 Cetaceans ..................................................................................................................................... 44 2.1 Brief description ............................................................................................................................... 46 2.2 Large whales at risk of interactions with large pelagic trawlers in Australian waters ................... 46

    2.2.1 Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis) ........................................................................................... 46 2.2.2 Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) ...................................................................................... 47 2.2.3 Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus).......................................................................................... 47 2.2.4 Southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) ............................................................................ 48 2.2.5 Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) ......................................................................... 48 2.2.6 Bryde’s whale (Balaenoptera edeni)........................................................................................ 49 2.2.7 Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) ................................................................................. 50

    2.3 Small cetaceans at risk of interactions with large pelagic trawlers in Australian waters ............... 50 2.3.1 Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis)...................................................................................... 50 2.3.2 Bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) ................................................................................. 51 2.3.3 Indo-Pacific (IP) bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) ......................................................... 51

  • iv

    2.3.4 Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) .................................................................................. 52 2.3.5 Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) ........................................................................................... 52 2.3.6 Fraser's dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei) ................................................................................... 53 2.3.7 Hourglass dolphin (Lagenorhynchus cruciger) ........................................................................ 53 2.3.8 Southern right whale dolphin (Lissodelphis peronii) ............................................................... 53 2.3.9 Pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) ................................................................... 54 2.3.10 Dusky dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obscurus) ............................................................................. 54 2.3.11 Short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) ........................................................ 55 2.3.12 Long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas) ........................................................................ 55 2.3.13 Killer whale (Orcinus orca) ....................................................................................................... 56

    2.4 Conservation status of the species nationally ................................................................................. 56 2.5 Description of the nature and extent of interactions between cetaceans and trawl fisheries ........ 56

    2.5.1 Incidental bycatch in fisheries ................................................................................................. 56 2.5.2 Entanglement in discarded netting ......................................................................................... 59 2.5.3 Boat strike ................................................................................................................................ 59 2.5.4 Vessel noise ........................