Linking school milk with smallholder dairy and school milk in Bangladesh... biscuits rather than...

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  • Linking school milk with smallholder dairy development strategy: Thai experience and design

    considerations for a pilot project in Bangladesh

    Mohammad A Jabbar and Vinod Ahuja

  • Background and objectives

    • Bangladesh component of Two CFC funded projects to be implemented in partnership with GMPF :

    – Smallholder dairy development through productivity improvement and better market access

    – Link above with a pilot school milk programme to enhance milk consumption and livelihoods

    • Objectives of this study

    – To review nutrition and feeding programmes in Bangladesh and school milk programe in Thailand to draw lessons for designing the school milk pilot in Bangladesh

  • Methodology

    • Review of published and unpublished literature and data

    • Discussion with various stakeholders in the dairy sector and in school milk programmes in both the countries

    • Specific discussion and field visits with GMPF about its past dairy operations, on-going activities and facilities in the context of plans for implementation of the new projects

    • Discussion with FAORAP officials responsible for implementation of the projects

  • Review of nutrition and feeding

    programmes in Bangladesh

  • Status of poverty and child malnutrition in Bangladesh

    Poverty indicators 1990-95 2010

    Poverty head count ratio 59.0 31.5

    Poverty gap ratio 17.0 6.5

    % population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption

    28.0 20.0

    Under 5 child malnutrition indicators 1993-94 2007

    Underweight 56.3 41.0

    Stunted 54.6 43.2

    Wasted 17.7 17.4

    Source: Sixth five year plan document

  • Nutrition and feeding programmes/projects ran and/or running to address malnutrition

    • National Food and Nutrition Policy and Programme

    • Bangladesh School Feeding Programme of the World Food Programme

    • Bangladesh School Nutrition Programme of Land O’Lakes and Tetra Pack

    • School Milk Programme of Arla Foods

    • Health, Nutrition and Food Security Project of CARE- Danone Japan


  • Some nutrition and school feeding/educational projects without milk

    • Nearly all are principally aid/donor funded and implemented mainly by NGOs with support from the government

    • Under the National Food and Nutrition Policy and Programme

    – a feeding project targeted to malnourished infants and pregnant mothers implemented in 105 out of 464 upazilas

    – a project is implemented in 173 out of 464 upazilas to increase awareness of school students about balanced food and diet, nutrition and hygiene

    • A school feeding project implemented since 2002 by WFP

    – with support from the Ministry of Education

    – To increase school enrolment, attendance and performance .

    – currently distributes micronutrient fortified biscuits to 1.1 million students

    – government is planning to expand the programme with own resources but with technical help from WFP

  • School milk project of Tetra Pack and Land O’Lakes: Only proper school milk project implemented in the country

    • Implemented during 2002-03 and 2005-2009 in 4 upazilas in Jamalpur district with USAID donated powder milk to improve school enrolment, attendance and performance

    • Powder milk was supplied to local dairy processors at agreed price and in lieu they delivered UHT milk to project upazilas at agreed price; further distribution to schools was arranged with local transport service providers.

    • Distributed UHT milk to 500,000 students plus teachers in about 1000 primary schools

    • Real objective was to test the acceptability of UHT milk in Bangladesh and create business opportunity for Tetra Pack’s technology

    • So project was stopped once commodity aid stopped but main objective achieved as dairy processors created UHT capacity and are marketing UHT milk in urban and small towns and rural areas

  • Tetra Pack School milk project outcomes and problems

    • No objective impact assessment was done but positive outcomes have been mentioned in project progress reports – School attendance and performance improved, absence reduced – Created employment for project staff, local transport providers – Created demand for a good amount of milk, which otherwise would

    not happen

    • Problems experienced (but not fully documented)include – being based on imported powder milk, created negative

    consequence for domestic dairy producers – Duplication of student enrolment so needed extra supply of milk – Pilferage of milk reaching non-targeted people, – Students taking milk home to share with family as milk is a

    highly valued product that poor can’t afford to buy, thus creating problems for measuring impact and performance

  • School milk project of Arla Foods in Dhaka slum area

    • Danish Arla Foods co., largest exporter of powder milk to Bangladesh taking 30% share of powder milk market

    • Imported powder and related trade, tariff and taxation policies have been found to favour exporters, domestic importers and dairy processors and not consumers and dairy producers as increased price transferred to consumers but not to producers

    • As part of corporate social responsibility, Arla distributes UHT milk to a total of 800 students in Bangladesh, Vietnam and Dominican Republic. In Bangladesh, only one primary school in a slum area in Dhaka is served on school days but objective unclear

  • Grameen Danone : a social business

    • Grameen Danone produces micronutrient

    fortified yoghurt in its Bogra plant by

    collecting milk from smallholder dairy

    producers in the district for selling to rural

    poor children to alleviate malnutrition

    • Currently 20-30% of output sold in rural

    areas, rest in urban areas. Retail price still

    beyond the reach of most poor children

    • Rural sales organized through mobile

    Rickshaw Van sellers and Shakti Ladies

    (women retailers) using cool boxes/bags

    • A new product called fermented milk that

    will not require cold chain is under trial

    • A new plant planned for Savar near Dhaka

    primarily targeting urban market, so the

    original objective of serving rural poor may

    remain unfulfilled.

  • CARE-Danone Japan project: Not school milk per se

    • CARE-Danone Japan project promotes

    awareness about balanced food, nutrition

    and hygienic health practices among

    10000 primary school students and

    teachers in 50 schools in Bogra district.

    Modules include special class lectures and

    school gardening as main activities

    • Grameen Danone’s yoghurt purchased by

    the project and given to students twice a

    month on project related special class

    days to encourage attendance. So it can’t

    be categorized as a school milk

    programme per se

    • Given only twice a month supply, impact

    not known, likely to be insignificant

  • Review of dairy development and role of school milk programme in Thailand

  • Thai dairy development since 1962

    • Dairy was not important in traditional mixed farming as cattle and buffaloes were mainly used for draft power and meat and no tradition of drinking milk among most adults

    • Major initiative for dairy development since 1962 under Royal patronage and government support through

    – Breed and feed development

    – Extension and promotion of dairy farming as an alternative to less profitable crops especially in poorer regions away from Bangkok

    – Promotion of dairy cooperatives to facilitate milk production, collection and marketing

    – Promotion of dairy processing industry and milk consumption

    – Trade and price policy to protect domestic dairy sector

  • Surplus production and school milk as a new market outlet since 1992

    • Due to various efforts since 1962, dairy farming and milk production rapidly increased

    • In late 1980s, farmers’ protested to solve problems of surplus milk and low and variable price

    • Rapid economic growth yet malnutrition was still widespread

    • In 1992 , Act promulgated to introduce school milk nationally to reduce child malnutrition , create future consumers and support dairy producers

    • Milk purchased by government and distributed to schools , initially in kindergartens gradually adding other grades and number of days served, grade 6 reached in 17th year after introduction of the programme

  • Outcome of Thai school milk programme 1: Child nutrition and economy wide effects

    • Child health and nutrition – Child malnutrition dropped from 18%

    in 1992 to

  • Outcome of school milk programme 2:

    Number of cows, milk production and import

    Year No of milking cows

    Milk output (tons)

    Powder milk import (tons)

    1961 2000 2000 1535

    1970 2800 3500 4428

    1980 15000 30000 11