Lifespan Childhood Development

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    Chapters 10 and 12:Nutrition in Childhood

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    OBJECTIVES

    1.Growth Epe!tations "or sta#es o"!hildhood

    2.Ener#$ Needs "or !hildren durin#!hildhood sta#es

    %.&eedin# Issues "or Toddlers and'res!hoolers

    (.Go)ern*ent 'ro#ra*s

    +.Childhood O,esit$

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    C-I/-OO/ STGES

    Toddler: 1% $ears o" a#e

    'res!hool: %+ $ears o" a#e

    S!hool a#e: 12 $ears o" a#e

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    N3T4ITION4E53I4E6ENTS

    /eter*ination o" ener#$7!alorie8 needs in !hilhood:

    1. ,asal *eta,olis*

    2. rate of growth

    %. ener#$ ependiture

    Ener#$ needs de!rease with a#e"ro* 9 100 !al;# in in"an!$ to

    9 (0 !al;# in adoles!en!e

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    ''4O

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    C-I/4EN 4E NOT

    J3ST ITTE /3TSD

    6ore spe!ialied nutrition

    ener#$F and protein needed "or:

    inear Growth

    Bone de)elop*ent

    /ental de)elop*ent

    6us!le de)elop*ent

    'u,ertal /e)elop*ent

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    TO//E4F GE 1%

    /e)elop*ental sta#e

    'arent or da$!are *odelin#D

    Co*petiti)e &oods

    /e)elop*ent o" "la)or pre"eren!es

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    &EE/INGF N3T4ITIONN/ COGNITIVE

    /EVEO'6ENT

    Birth2 $rs: Sensori*otor

    Satis"$ hun#er En)iron*ental eploration 'ra!ti!e "ine *otor sills

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    TO//E4F GE 1%

    Variet$: !hoppedF ta,leD "ood

    Should ,e o"" all in"ant "oods:tetureF "in#ers and utensils

    hole *il and water

    Iron and in!!ontainin# "oods

    &i,er!ontainin# "oods

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    TO//E4 N/ '4ESC-OO

    SE4VING SIHES

    4ule o" thu*,: 1 TBS. ea!h o"

    proteinF star!h and 12 )e#s "orea!h $ear o" a#e up to a#e

    Or

    91;(1;% o" adult portion to a#e %91;21;% o" adult portion to a#e

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    &EE/ING T-E TO//E4

    Sills

    -andsF !upsF spoonsF "ors

    Tetures

    Beha)iors;Independen!e

    Sna!s: )alua,le nutrients

    Sna!s )s. TreatsD

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    TO//E4S

    4ate o" #rowth slows

    Bod$ proportions !han#esi#ni"i!antl$

    -ead #rowth is less

    i*,s len#then

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    TO//E4S

    Calories: @0 !al per

    'rotein: 1.1 #;per #;da$

    &at: %0(0 o" !alories

    Iron: *#;da$"ro* 11 *# in in"an!$

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    COGNITIVE /EVEO'6ENTF GE N/&EE/INGF CONTIN3E/

    2: 'reoperational

    S$*,ols: !olorsF shapes

    E#o!entri!: I lie and Idont lieD

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    PRE-SCHOOL OBESITY

    http://www.npr.org/player/v2/e!"aPlayer.htl#

    a$t"on%&'t%&'"(l"(t%)al(e'"!%2*+,&,,*'%2*+,&+

    http://www.ha(tv.$o/new(/lo$al/0e(p"te-1at"onw"!e-Iproveent-1era(a-St"ll-See"ng-Prole(-3"th-Oe("ty-Rate(-"n-Ch"l!ren-2&4,,,,&.htl

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    COGNITIVE/EVEO'6ENTF GE N/

    &EE/INGFCONTIN3E/

    11 $rs: Con!rete operations

    i*ited awareness thatnutrition a""e!ts health

    ,ut not how or wh$

    'eer in"luen!e

    &a*ilieshttp:;;www.sesa*estreet.or#;par

    ents;topi!sanda!ti)ities;toolit

    s;"ood;"eelin##ood

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    C-I/ -ET- ISS3ES4ETE/ TO /IET

    &TT 7&ailure to Thri)e8

    O)erwei#ht and O,esit$

    /ental Caries 7!a)ities8

    S/s

    Constipation: &i,er

    -i#h ,lood lipids and T$pe 2dia,etes related to o)erwei#ht

    &ood aller#ies

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    I4ON /E&ICIENC=

    6ost Co**on nutrientdisorder o" !hildhood

    ""e!ts approi*atel$ @ o"toddlers

    ined to lower test s!ores

    /ietar$ "a!tors

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    IRON-DEFICIENCY

    ANEMIA AGES 1-3

    Transition o"" "or*ula

    4elian!e on "ood "or Iron

    E!essi)e use o" ,ottlewith *il or other liKuids

    'oor Kualit$ diets withinadeKuate *eatsF poultr$F ,eans

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    I4ON/E&ICIENC=NE6I GES 1%

    Blood )olu*e epands withrapid #rowth

    In!reased he*o#lo,in 7-#8

    -# is *ain !o*ponent o" red,lood !ells 74BCs8

    -e*o#lo,in !arries 02

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    E/ 'OISONINGL N3T4ITION

    o Older ho*es [email protected] paint with lead

    o S!rapin# paint inside L outside: paint!hips;dust

    o Children in#est;inhale

    o [email protected]@ s!reenin# #uidelinesre)ious *a: 102+ *!#;dl ,lood

    o

    Re!5$e! to 6 &*

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    E/ N/N3T4ITION

    o 6ore lead is a,sor,ed when

    sto*a!h is e*pt$ so % *ealsand sna!s

    o Need to assure #ood intae o"!al!iu*F iron and in!

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    HINC T4CE 6INE4

    oO"ten de"i!ientF esp. $oun# !hildren

    o&ood sour!es: 6ostl$ *eatsFsea"oodF so*e in whole #rains

    o/e"i!ien!$:o'oor appetiteo/i*inished taste a!uit$o'oor wound healin#o'oor wei#ht #ain and #rowth

    o I*portant stud$ in E#$ptian ,o$s

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    7I1C

    oNeeded "or /N "or*ation.

    o/N is in e)er$ !ell

    oEtra /N needed durin#

    !hildhood 7sta#e o" rapid#rowth8

    oEspe!iall$ in ti*es o" !at!hup#rowth

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    S3''E6ENT /

    6ore )ita*in C and in!I**une supportChe"sBestP ward:Best Taste

    Hin!8 % *# 720 /V8

    4e#ular Gu**$ Vite has 2. *#. Hin!

    /ose: 2 Gu**ies 7 "or % *#.8

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    HINC S3''E6ENTTION

    &lintstones Co*plete :

    /osa#e: 1 ta,let ( and up

    R ta,let a#es 2%

    'ro)ides: 12 *#. per ta,let

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    &EE/ING '4ESC-OOC-I/4EN

    oGrowth rate slows

    o'arents !ontrol "oods o""eredand pro)ide en)iron*ental

    stru!ture

    oSna!s ). treats

    o Co*petiti)e "oods

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    &EE/ING '4ESC-OO

    C-I/4EN?CONT/

    o'h$si!al en)iron*ent

    oE!essi)e intae o" "ruit ui!e

    o6eals and sna!s in da$!are

    o'eer in"luen!e

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    88P POLICY ST8TE9E1T2**&

    3SE 0N/ 6IS3SE O& &43ITJ3ICE IN 'E/I0T4ICSD

    In$rea(e( r"( o) :Oe("ty

    Cav"t"e(

    To!!ler;( 0"arrheaPoor !"et $"en$y

    Low >er "ntae

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    ' 4ECO66EN/TIONS

    < 6 monthso) age: no ?5"$e

    6 -12 months: $an !r"n 5p [email protected] to A o5n$e( o) ?5"$e 5t only"n a $5p not a ottle

    1 to 6 years: not ore than @to A o5n$e( o) ?5"$e

    > 6 years: not ore than 4 to&2 o5n$e( o) ?5"$e

    En$o5rage $h"l!ren to eat whole)r5"t(

    En$o5rage $h"l!ren to !r"nwater

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    GOVE4N6ENT '4OG46S

    &O4 C-I/4EN&. S08;( Ch"l! an!

    8!5lt Care oo! Progra DC8CP

    2. Hea! Start-

    Fenhan$e! !ay $are w/e!"$al !entalental health an! n5tr"t"onal (erv"$e( a(well a( parent o5trea$h

    . 3IC Progra: Pregnant/La$tat"ng 3oenan! $h"l!ren 5p to year(.

    http://w"$wor(.nal.5(!a.gov/

    8CTI=ITY- PL81 O1E 08Y 9E1http://www.$!ph.$a.gov/progra(/w"$wor(/0o$5ent(/1E/3IC-1E-E!9ater"al([email protected]!)

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    &EE/ING SC-OOGE/

    C-I/4EN

    Slow stead$ #rowth

    S!hool lun!hes -o*epa!ed lun!hes

    4estaurants

    Sna$( v(. Ftreat(G

    Copet"t"ve )oo!(

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    &OO/ 'TTE4NSC-I/-OO/

    o Eplosion o" produ!ts that area)aila,le !o**er!iall$.

    o

    ess *ilF *ore sodaF ui!e andassorted drins

    o 6ore ener#$ "ro* sna!s

    o ess eatin# at ho*e

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    http:;;www.!hop!hop*a#.or#;

    4EST34NT N/

    6GHINE http://("te.5rton(gr"ll.$o/-

    $hoo(y-$h"l!ren-en5/

    http://www.$hop$hopag.org/re$"pe(/>(h-ta$o(

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    http://$t$).org/why-$oo"ng-together-$oo"ng-)orever.php

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    HEI

    In $la(( a$t"v"ty

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    HEI-2010 COMPONENTSAND SCORIN S!STEM

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    HEI RESLTS OR

    CHIL0RE1- 2*&*

    learn S"te

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    GE G4O3'S: SC-OO GE

    3S/: National S!hool un!h 'ro#ra*:

    1;% o" dail$ /4I

    I*pro)e*ent seen with SC-OOENESS CO3NCIS

    'a!ed lun!hes *onotonouspre"erred "oods pa!ed o"tenFnonperisha,le "oods needed

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    SC-OO 3NC-ES

    4O3N/ T-E O4/

    http://www.(t5le5pon.$o/(5/2")JK/to!ay"learne!.$o.5/2*&&/*@/2*/what-"!(-o)-the-worl!-eat-at-($hool/

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    Chan"es #n M#n#m$m Amo$nts an% Ty&es o'(oo%) *$n+h

    (oo%

    ro$&

    C$rrent

    Re$#rement

    Ne.

    Re+ommen%at#on

    r5"t an!=egetale(

    &/2 - & $5p o) )r5"tan! vegetale($o"ne!

    /@ & $5p o) vegetale(&/$s&/2 & $5p o) )r5"t per !ay

    =egetale(1o (pe$">$at"on( a(to type o)vegetale

    3eely re

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    SC-OOS

    o6an$ resour!es ha)e ,eende)oted to nutrition ed

    oar#el$ unsu!!ess"ul unlessparents were in!luded

    oBetter su!!ess w; !han#in# the"ood and pro)idin# opportunit$"or ph$si!al a!ti)it$

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    =I0EOS

    http://www.wh"teho5(e.gov/

    $hap"on(/$he)(/t"othy-$"pr"ano

    http://www.yo5t5e.$o/wat$h#v%ovO&4E-hgew

    http://www.yo5t5e.$o/wat$h#v%T8rHCSNJhE

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    &46 TO SC-OO

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    C-I/ N3T4ITION4E3T-O4IHTION -ET-=F

    -3NGE4&4EE >I/S CT 2010

    oIn!reases a!!ess to health$ "ood

    "or lowin!o*e !hildren

    ohat is the #oal

    4edu!tion o" !hildhood

    o,esit$ andi*pro)ed nutrition

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    S08 810 2*&* 8CT

    o15tr"t"onal (tan!ar!( )or all )oo!((ol! "n ($hool( "n$l5!"ng ven!"nga$h"ne( Fa la $arteG l5n$hl"ne( an! ($hool (tore(.

    o8!!"t"onal )5n!"ng to ($hool( thateet 5p!ate! n5tr"t"onal(tan!ar!( )or )e!erally-(5("!"e!

    l5n$he(.

    oProote )ar-to ($hool networ($reate ($hool gar!en(.

    oEKpan!( a$$e(( to !r"n"ng water"n ($hool( part"$5larly !5r"ng

    eal t"e( D)ree water

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    =IT89I1 0

    'rodu!ed in the sin a"tereposure o" deh$dro!holesterol

    to sunli#ht

    'ro*otes intestinal !al!iu*

    a,sorption

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    &OO/ SO34CES

    VIT6IN /(#sh) 0- o$n+es)Cat3sh 42 I

    Sa/mon Ma+7era/ 0 I5Sar%#nes #n o#/ 40 IT$na #n o#/ 2 I

    8ho/e e"" 41 I5

    (#sh /#9er o#/s e"+o% /#9eo#/s

    1 T:*S 160I5

    95(hroo( are only vegan(o5r$e:&@ "5 )or &**g

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    HTTP://333.YOTBE.CO9/

    38TCH#=%B97EELE

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    &OO/ E4GIES

    o &ood aller#ies *ost o"ten*ani"est in in"an!$ and!hildhood. 're)alen!e: (A

    o ller#i! responses in!luderespirator$ or

    #astrointestinals$*pto*sF sin rea!tionsF"ati#ueF or ,eha)ior

    !han#es

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    85g5(t 2*&* A

    &OO/ E4GIES

    IN C-I/-OO/o 6ilF e##F wheatF so$F peanutsF tree

    nutsF "ishF shell"ish ? @0 o"

    aller#ies

    o 6ilF e##F wheatF so$ L peanut are

    *ost !o**on in !hildhood

    o ller#$ to C6' is *ost !o**on inin"ants in!ludin# in"ants who are

    ,reast"ed.

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    85g5(t 2*&* ,

    INCI/ENCE L '4EVENCEO& &OO/ E4GIES IN

    C-I/-OO/

    &++,-2**, Report )ro Center( )or0"(ea(e Control:

    oIn$"!en$e: In$rea(e o) &4M

    o*M "n$rea(e "n pean5t allergy

    oPrevalen$e: @-4M o) $h"l!ren an!Q 2M o) a!5lt(

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    85g5(t 2*&* 4

    &OO/ E4G=

    o

    Adverse !!"#e res$o#seto the $rote# # a food

    o

    Mo%e&"%ar weghtde$e#de#t

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    I663NOGOB3INS7NTIBO/IES8

    o6ade ,$ the i**une s$ste*

    otta!h to a spe!i"i! anti#en

    o6ae it easier "or i**une !ellsoto destro$ the anti#en

    oSpe!i"i! to ea!h su,stan!e andha)e *e*or$D

    o

    http:;;www.insider*edi!ine.!o*;ar!hi)es;VI/EOUI"UIU-adUU&oodUller#$U/rUeslieUGra**erU6/UNorthwesternU3ni)ersit$US!hoolUo"U6edi!ineU&ein,er#US!hoolUo"U6edi!ineU%+0.asp

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    85g5(t 2*&* A*

    I663NE 4ES'ONSE

    I**une rea!tion to ,a!teriaF)irusesF danderF et!.

    6ast Cells !an also rea!t toordinaril$ har*less "oods.

    Che*i!al rea!tion o!!urs.

    This o)errea!tion s$*pto*s"ro* *ild 7hi)es8 to se)ere7anaph$la!ti! sho!8.

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    85g5(t 2*&* A&

    -E4E/IT= N/ TO'=

    Chan!e o" de)elopin# "ood aller#$:

    o+1+: no atopi! parent

    o20(0: one atopi! parent7stron#er *aternal in"luen!e8

    o(00: ,oth parents atopi!

    o2+%+: one si,lin# ,ut neither

    parent atopi!

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    85g5(t 2*&* A2

    '4EVIO3S ' G3I/EINES ?E4G= '4EVENTION

    o In pla!e "or %0 $ears:

    o

    ll In"ants to12 *os: a)oid:

    o C6' 7*ilF $o#urtF !heese and"oods !ontainin# C6'8

    o

    peanutso e## whites

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    85g5(t 2*&* A

    4E'CES E4IE4 ''OIC= STTE6ENT

    Efects o Early NutritionalInterventions on the Development

    o Atopic Disease in Inants andChildren:

    The Role o Maternal DietaryRestriction, reasteedin!,"ydroly#ed $ormulas and Timin!o Introduction o Complementary$ood%

    Greer &4F Si!herer SF Burs and Co**ittee on Nutrition and Se!tion onller#$ and I**unolo#$. 'ediatri!s 200AW121W1A%@1

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    [email protected]

    200A ' 'OIC= STTE6ENT

    9aternal pregnan$y/la$tat"onre(tr"$t"on o) )oo! allergen(

    0elaye! (ol"!( eyon! Aonth(

    Re(tr"$t"on o) (pe$">$ )oo!(5nt"l a)ter &2 onth( o) age

    Th"( "n$l5!e( h"ghly allergen"$)oo!( (5$h a( egg( pean5t >(h

    Ch"l!ren notat r"( )orallerg"e(: 1o ev"!en$e the)ollow"ng prevent( )oo!allerg"e(:

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    T4ET6ENT TE6

    ''4OC-o )oidan!e o" aller#ens

    o /iet su,stitutions

    o Nutritional Supple*entation i"ne!essar$F e.#.F CaXXF Vit /

    o 4e!ipes palata,ilit$F !ost

    o Shoppin# Guidan!e

    o

    's$!holo#i!al Support

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    'RE(EN)ING C*RONICDISEASE

    4oots o" !hroni! diseases in adultsF

    su!h as heart diseaseF !an!erFdia,etesF and o,esit$.

    /iet Kualit$ and !alories Cal!iu* and ,one health &i,er Sodiu* 'h$si!al a!ti)it$

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    OVE4EIG-T;OBESIT=

    In!reasin# pre)alen!e ?*ore soa*on# poor "a*ilies;*inorities

    In"luen!es:a&&ess to food

    &o!$ettve foods

    eat#g ted to %es"re

    a&tvtes&h%dre# !a+#g food de&so#s

    $orto# s,es

    #a&tvt )( / $assvea&tvt

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    OVE4EIG-T;OBESIT=

    B9I 4thM:overwe"ght

    B9I +thM: oe(e

    Per("(ten$e o) oe("ty"nto a!5lthoo!

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    OBESIT= INC4ESES

    4IS>

    Cardio)as!ular and 6eta,oli!/isorders:

    -$perlipide*ia

    -$pertension T$pe 2 /ia,etes

    &att$ i)er Steatohepatitis

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    63TICENTE4 ST3/=

    N&/

    Su,e!ts:

    1%1 !hildren with N&/ [email protected]@+ to200

    + !enters in 3S LCanada

    In!iden!e: @ i" nor*al wei#ht and %A i" o,ese

    #e ran#e: (1A $ears

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    INTE4VENTIONS &O4

    C-I/-OO/ OBESIT=

    o&a*il$ in)ol)e*ent

    o/ietar$ *odi"i!ations

    oNutrition in"or*ation

    o'h$si!al a!ti)it$

    oBeha)ioral strate#ies

    o're)ention

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    Stage! Care TreatentStage! Care Treatent

    a(e! on B9I- p. 4,- Rea!a(e! on B9I- p. 4,- Rea!

    p. 4,-44p. 4,-441 PRE;ENTION P*5S

    Hea/thy %#et an% a+t#9#ty&ra+t#+es) > (r$#ts an% 9e"s%ay *#m#t SS:s :e a+t#9e 'or >60

    m#n$tes%ay *#m#t s+reen t#me to

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    Stage 2- S39

    S#m#/ar a%9#+e =$tmore str$+t$re 'ora++o$nta=#/#ty

    (oo% an% Eer+#se

    *o"s

    *#m#t s+reen t#meto

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    Jro5p 3e"ght 9anageent )orJro5p 3e"ght 9anageent )or

    Ch"l!ren 4-&2- Cr"ter"a )orCh"l!ren 4-&2- Cr"ter"a )or

    Ee$t"vene((Ee$t"vene(( Treatment o' /on" %$rat#on > 16

    .ee7s

    N$tr#t#ona/ e%$+at#on . str$+t$re%%#et

    Psy+ho/o"#+a/ #nter9ent#on

    Phys#+a/ a+t#9#ty +om&onent

    Parents are the @a"ents o' +han"e

    Ch#/%ren an% &arents treate% #n 2

    se&arate "ro$&s

    Some e9#%en+e) &arents treate%

    a/one .#th +h#/%ren om#tte% 'rom

    treatment e9en more eBe+t#9e

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    TEEVISION VIEINGTI6E N/ /S

    'res!hool ? 92 hours perwee

    S!hool a#e 9 2% hours perwee

    ods "or "ast"ood;soda;drinsL !on)enien!e "ood

    oChildren !ant distin#uish ,etween ads and pro#ra*s

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    TV N/ C-I/4EN

    ' re!o**endation: No TV less than 2 $ears o" a#e 2 hours or less in !hildren

    6aor asso!iation with hours o" TV ando,esit$

    Sna! eatin# shown *ore o"ten thanBFF/ !o*,ined

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    '-=SIC CTIVIT=

    o-elps !ontrol wei#ht

    o-elps with learnin#

    oI*pro)es stren#th;enduran!e

    o4edu!es stress

    oBuild ,one *ineral densit$

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    JI0ELI1ES

    IO6: 0 *inutes per da$ o"*oderate to )i#orous '

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    &T N/C4/IOVSC34 4IS>

    o-i#h saturated;trans "at diet

    o-i#h ,lood !holesterol

    otheros!lerosis !an ,e#in in!hildhood and adoles!en!e

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    88P 810 8T

    8)ter 2 eg"n

    gra!5ally re!5$"ng)at 5nt"l !"etprov"!e( *M o)

    $alor"e( )ro )at yage

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    NTION C-OESTE4OE/3CTION '4OG46 0NCE'

    4e!o**endations "or Children 2 $rs o" a#e ? sa*e as "oradults

    No *ore than %0 o" !alories

    "ro* "at Guidelines "or how *u!h should

    ,e sat.F unsat.F pol$s