Life in the Middle Ages

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2. FEUDALISM 3. What is it? Social & Economical structure typical from the Middle Ages Reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility with three key concepts: Lords,vassalsandfiefs.When?X XIIIth Centuries 4. MIDDLE AGES LACK OF SAFETY RURAL WORLD SELF SUFFIENCYRISE OF NOBILITYFEUDALISM 5. due todue toROMAN EMPIRE CRISIScausesECONOMIC CRISISPOLITICAL INSTABILITY due todue to NEED FOR MONEYCORRUPTIONcausesBARBARIAN TRIBESRURAL WORLDTRADE CRISISMORE TAXESDECLINE of CITIESSELFSUFFICIENCYcausesINFLATION andPRICE INCREASEcauses 6. A land based economyLAND = $$$$$$ Land granted by a lord in exchange for servicesFief (latin feudum) The recipient of the fief would be one of his VASSALS 7. The Commendation Ceremony 8. VASSALLORDFIEF 9. PEASANT 10. PEASANTS Are not a private property But theyre not actualy free: they were serfs (servants) They must give a portion of the harvest and work certain days in the Lords own land 11. A PORTION OF THE HARVEST 12. Every vassal has to pay the Lord 13. Works for the Lord 14. The Lord must defend his vassals 15. Lord: - military protection - legal defense - land Vassal: - military help - advice - part of the profits 16. FEUDAL PYRAMID 17. FEUDAL PYRAMID 18. Medieval ChivalryThe word evolved from terms such as chevalier (French), caballero (Spanish), and cavaliere (Italian) a warrior who fought on horseback 19. Medieval Chivalry - Medieval conventions of chivalry directed that men should honor, serve, and do nothing to displease ladies and maidens. - Few people in medieval society could read or write, and a family's coat of arms often stood for an official stamp or signature.Luque 20. Heraldry 21. Heraldry 22. Heraldry 23. Heraldry 24. Heraldry 25. Heraldry 26. Heraldry 27. Heraldry 28. HeraldryISSA 29. Heraldry today 30. TIME & SPACE Life depended on the daylight hours. Work begun and ended with the sun. Church bells divided time every 3 hours (clocks wereinvented in the XIV th Century) Nowadays Calendar didnt exist 31. TIME & SPACE Distance was measured by walking 90% of the population were peasants and never left their villages or towns As a consequence they knew their enviroment really well Man was part of the Creation 32. HOUSES A cottage with mud walls (or wattle and daub ), clay floor, and thatched roof, often shared with animals = warmer 33. one or two rooms, with a loft for storage. 34. Few (if any) small windows. Waxed clothes or parchment were used to close the windows. (Glass was a luxury material) 35. Horn panes were a good substitute of glass 36. Wealthy people had tapestries to mitigate cold 37. The bed Sometimes the whole family slept together in the same bed Mattress was just a piece of cloth with straws and dried leaves inside. They were easily rotten and full of insects. Lavender, Tansy and other herbs made the bed smell sweeter and kept the bugs away 38. Furnishings Peasants had a bed, a table, a couple of wooden benches and a trunk. Wooden bowls were used for eating and drinking. 39. Furnishings In most homes people sat on plain stools or benches. Only a lord was likely to have a chair with a back and armrests, and he was thus called the.. 40. Medieval food Peasant cottages had no chimneys, cooking was done on a simple stone hearth in the center of the room. A hole in the roof instead of a chimney made the room not only dark but smokey but smoke is a good deodorant! 41. in the center of which was a few flat stones on which the fire was placed.A hole at the top of the thatched roof let the smoke escape smoke is a good deodorant! 42. Medieval food In stone houses a fireplace was common and the iron pots or cauldrons hanging from hooks were the main cooking utensil. 43. Medieval food In manor houses and castles big kitchens were often housed in separate buildings since they posed a serious fire hazard. 44. Medieval food Dinner was the main mealBasic food were vegetables, cereals, legumes, beer, wine, soup, oil and bread What about water?Sometimes there was pig meat, rabbit, eggs, milk or fish available 45. Medieval food What do you think the staple foods were? How did they preserve food? Why spices and honey were so important? 46. Medieval food Food was preserved in salt Spicies were commonly used to disguise meat in bad condition.Spicies were very, very expensive 47. The search for spices caused some important changes in European History 48. Portugal & Spain Vasco da Gama Columbus Magellan 49. Medieval new productsPasta Fork Bakeries 50. Muslims brought them 51. They were unknown 52. Bathing during the Middle Ages ristians Ch As a rule, only the very wealthy could afford taking baths. Most of the people cleaned themselves maybe a couple of times a month. Muslims were obligated by their religion to wash themselves (face, hands & feet) 5 times a day. Public baths were very popular in Muslim towns.Muslim s 53. Medieval Clothing Medieval clothing varied according to the social standing of the people. The clothing worn by nobility and upper classes was clearly different than that of the lower class. The clothing of peasants during the Middle Ages was very simple. 54. Medieval ClothingClothes, like tools, were mostly homemade from local materials. 55. Medieval Clothing Medieval peasant women spent much of their time spinning wool or turning it into felt, which they used for hats.Many would have worn hats made of local straw to protect their heads on hot days while working the land. 56. Medieval Clothing The clothing of nobility was fitted with a distinct emphasis on the sleeves of the garments.Knights adorned themselves with sleeveless "surcoats" covered with a coat of arms. 57. Medieval Education Medieval education was conducted by the Church. Students often sat together on the floor, scrawling notes from lessons using a bone or ivory stylus on wooden tablets coated with green or black wax. Physical punishment was not only allowed but normal in the class 58. Medieval Education Girls were virtually ignored when it came to education. Only daughters of the very rich and powerful were allowed to attend select courses.At 14 or 15, some scholars would continue education at a university (a creation of the Middle Ages). 59. Cannon,clocks,Music sheets,Gun powder,golf,pen,compass,paper,0,astrolabio,chess,rudder, calendar,rueca,Oil painting,Wind mill,Paper money,Magnifying glass,glasses, print, horseshoescrew 60. WOMEN DURING THE MIDDLE AGES Problem: not too many writings about women Monks and religious men were the only people who knew how to write 61. WOMEN DURING THE MIDDLE AGES According to the Church a woman was either: 1) Eve created from Adams rib and guilty of the original sin 2) Mary virgin , self-sacrifice, self-denial, mother and wife