Liên quan và điều hòa chuyển hóa

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Transcript of Liên quan và điều hòa chuyển hóa

  • Trao i trc tuyn ti:

    http://www.mientayvn.com/Y_online.html

    http://mientayvn.com/Y_online.html
  • LIN QUAN V

    IU HO CHUYN HO

  • Mc tiu

    Trnh by c s lin quan gia chuyn ho

    cc cht G, L, P, AN.

    Gii thch c s iu ho chuyn ho mc t bo.

  • i cng:

    Cc cht u c con ng chuyn ho ring. Con ng chuyn ho ca cc cht c nhng im chung, lin quan cht ch to nn mng

    li chuyn ho chung rt phc tp ca c th

  • S lin quan

    gia cc con

    ng chuyn

    ho cc cht

    www.genome.ad.jp/kegg/pathway/map/map01100.html

  • i cng

    Qu trnh chuyn ho cc cht c kim sot

    cht ch nh c ch iu ho mc c th

    hoc t bo.

    S iu ho chuyn ho cc cht theo nhu cu ca c th.

  • 1. LIN QUAN CHUYN HA

    PROTID

    ACID AMIN

    Ala

    Leu, Ile

    ACID NUCLEIC

    NUCLEOTID NUCLEEZID

    RIBOSE5P

    GPT

    GLUCID LIPID

    GLUCOSE GLYCEROL ACID BO

    G6P HMP NADPHH + oxh PGA HDP

    PYRUVAT

    ACETYL CoA 2H O2

    Asp

    HEM

    Glu

    GOT

    CT

    Ur

    OXALO ACETAT

    TCA FUMARAT

    SUCCINAT CO2 CETO

    GLUTARAT

    CITRAT

    2H 2H 2H 2H

    CO2

    H

    HP ATP T BO

    H2O

    Lin quan gia chuyn ha cc cht glucid, lipid, protid v acid nucleic

  • Lin quan chuyn ho

    Thng nht chuyn ho

    Bin i qua li gia glucid, lipid, protid Lin hp phn ng, qu trnh Quan h chuyn ho gia cc bo quan Quan h chuyn ho gia cc m

  • 1.1. S thng nht chuyn ha

    Th hin : Chu trnh ACID CITRIC AcetylCoA CO2, H2O + Q

    H HP T BO: T CHY G, L, P theo nhng c ch chung, h thng enzym chung

    to H2O, ATP HOT HA, TCH TR V S DNG NNG

    LNG: nh qu trnh phosphoryl ha, h thng ADP-ATP.

  • Cc giai on ca qu trnh thoi ho

  • 1.2. S bin i qua li gia G, L, P: thng qua cc cht ng ba ng

    Cht ng ba ng : sn phm thoi ha chung : tin cht chung

    GLUCID

    LIPID Cht ng 3 ng

    PROTID TD: PYRUVAT, ACETYLCoA, OAA, GLYCEROL

    COOH

    COOH

    COOH

    COOH l

    l

    l

    l H2N- CH C=O GPT

    l l

    CH3 + CH2 l

    CH2 l COOH Ala CETO GLUTARAT

    C=O H2N- CH l l

    CH3 + CH2 l

    CH2 l COOH PYRUVAT Glu

    Pyruvat tn to glucid

    acetyl CoA AB

    Alanin

    ceto glutarat

    Aspartat ALAT GPT

    GOT ASAT Pyruvat

    L Glutamat

    Oxalo acetat

    CH2OH

    CH2OH

    NAD+

    NADHH+

    CH2OH

    ATP

    ADP l

    CHOH l CH2OH

    Glycerol

    kinase

    l l CHOH C=O

    Dehydrogenase l l CH2O- P CH2O- P

    PDA

    PGA tn to glucid

    pyruvat Ala

  • Tuy nhin cc cht khng th thay th nhau hon ton c v:

    - Glucid l ngun nng lng ch yu ca c th - Lipid: cc AB cn thit c th khng tng hp c - Protid: cc AA cn thit c th khng tng hp c

    ch dinh dng hp l, cht vi t l nht nh.

  • T L KHU PHN THC N THCH HP

    Nm

    Tng Q

    %

    P

    L

    G

    1972

    2300

    12

    13

    75 Kcal

    1997

    2700

    10-12

    15 - 20

    65 - 75 Kcal

  • 1.3. S lin hp gia cc phn ng v qu trnh

    S lin quan chuyn ho cn l s lin hp gia cc phn ng v qu

    trnh.

    Phn ng lin hp: s kt hp 2 phn ng: phn ng thoi ho gii

    phng nng lng v phn ng tng hp thu nng lng.

  • S lin hp gia cc phn ng v qu trnh

    Qu trnh chuyn ho ny lin quan n qu trnh chuyn ho kia qua

    cc sn phm chuyn ho

    + HMP NADPHH+ tng hp AB

    Ribose 5 P tng hp AN + HDP Oxalo acetat + Acetyl CoA oxh

    CTAC

    + CTAC Succinyl CoA HEM + glycin

    + CTAC + CT ur

    Citrulin

    Aspartat

    Oxalo acetat

    Arginosuccinat

    malat

    Arginin

    Fumarat

  • 1.4. Quan h chuyn ha gia cc bo quan

    BO DCH NHN

    TNG HP

    ADN

    ARN NAD+

    RIBOSOM

    ATP

    Tng hp protein

    ng phn HMP Tng hp AB

    ATP

    TY TH

    CHHTB Oxh AB CTAC To th ceton

    PO

    TY TH V BO DCH

    Tn to G CT ur To Hem

    TH TY

    : ni chuyn ha nng lng (ATP) NHN

    : tng hp ADN, ARN, NAD+ RIBOSOM : STH Protein

  • 1.5. Quan h chuyn ha gia cc m

    Mi m c c im v chc nng chuyn ha ring, ngoi nhng qu trnh chuyn ha chung m m no cng c (chuyn ha nng lng, STH Protein)

    GAN : chc nng glycogen v ni xy ra oxh Acid bo

    Glycogen

    AcetylCoA

    CTAC

    Glucose

    Th ceton

    MU

    Glucose

    Th ceton

    M KHC (c) Glucose

    Glycogen

    G6P

    AcetylCoA

    OA

    K

    Hu nh GAN ng vai tr trung tm trong mi lin quan chuyn ho gia cc m.

  • Gan

    Mu

    C AcylCoA

    AB

    AcylCoA G

    G

    ActCoA

    ActCoA

    Th ceton

    Th ceton

    Th ceton CTAC

    CTAC

  • Tng hp glucose t lactat.

    Chu trnh acid lactic (Cori)

  • C s dng glycogen nh mt

    ngun nng lng, to lactate thng qua con ng ng phn. Lactate

    c chuyn ti gan v chuyn

    thnh glucose thng qua qu trnh

    tn to ng.

    Glucose ny c phng thch vo mu tr v c b sung d tr

    glycogen ca c. Ton b con

    ng ny (glucose

    lactate glucose) to thnh chu trnh Cori.

  • Chu trnh Glucose-alanine

    Alanin ng vai tr nh mt cht

    mang ammonia v b khung carbon

    ca pyruvate t c n gan.

    Ammonia c bi tit v pyruvat

    c dng to glucose, glucose

    li quay tr li c

  • NO:

    Ngun nng lng ch yu l con ng HDP t glucose

    no cn c cung cp thng xuyn glucose v oxy.

    Khi i, cc th ceton thay th glucose

  • M M l ni d tr TG, ni xy ra qu trnh tng hp v phn gii TG.

    Glucose

    Glycerol P

    TG

    VLDL (TG)

    AB AcylCoA

    TG

    AB

    AB

    -albumin

    AB

    Glycerol

    Glycerol

    Gan

    M

  • 2. KHI NIM V IU HA CHUYN HA

    C th c kh nng t iu ha - Mc ton c th: Hormon, thn kinh - Mc t bo: H chuyn ha C ch:

    - nh hng n hot tnh ca ENZYM - nh hng n STH ENZYM

    2.1 C ch lm thay i hot tnh ENZYM (lng enzym khng i)

    Hot tnh enzym thay i do: - Nng c cht hoc coenzym (vit) - C ch iu ha d lp th TT. D lp th

    TTH

    C cht

    Cht tc dng Enzym d lp th

  • a) C ch DLT dng: s hot ha DLTcht tc dng: cht hot ha, lm TTH d tip nhn c cht v hot enzym tng ln (activator)

    ATP ADP UTP

    G G6P

    +

    b) C ch DLT m: s c ch DLT

    PP

    UDPG + Glycogen

    glycogen synthase (GS)

    UDP Glycogen-G

    Cht tc dng: cht c ch (inhibitor) TTH kh tip nhn c cht E1

    E2

    E3 A B C D Z

    -

    c ch ngc E1: enzym DLT

    Z : sn phm ca 1 qu trnh ng thi l cht c ch DLT

    TD: E. coli

    -

    L-ThreoninTD L.Isoleucin

    (TD: threonin dehydratase)

  • C ch phn t cho mi m hnh iu ha hon ton khc

    nhau, nhng thng theo mt trong hai kiu chnh: - iu ha m tnh: protein c ch gn vo vng iu ha ca

    DNA (gi l operator) ngn cn qu trnh phin m. - iu ha dng tnh: protein hot ho gn vo DNA lm

    tng qu trnh phin m. OPERON (n v phin m) l c s thit yu cho s iu ha

    biu hin gen TB Prokaryote.

    2.2 C ch nh hng STH ENZYM (lng enzym thay i)

  • - Operon bao gm cc gen cu trc, vng khi ng (promoter), operator v gen iu ha.

    - Cc gen cu trc m ha cho 1 hoc vi chui polypeptid

    - Promoter kim sot s phin m ca cc gen cu trc

    - Operator l vng m protein c ch s gn vo. Operator

    nm gia Promotor v cc gen cu trc.

    - Gen iu ha m ha cho protein c ch

    - mARN ca Prokaryote l Polycistron, m ha ra nhiu chui polypeptide

    Other requlatory

    sequence Operator

    Promoter Structural gene

    Cu trc ca Operon:

  • iu ha m tnh

    C 2 loi Operon: operon iu ha cm ng v

    c ch

    Operon c ch Cc gen cu trc ban u c

    phin m.

    Xy ra qu trnh ng ha.

    Sn phm phn ng s c ch phin m cc gen tng hp chng.

    H Tryptophan operon

    Operon cm ng

    Cc gen cu trc ban u

    khng c phin m.

    Xy ra qu trnh d ha.

    C cht c s dng trong phn ng d ha s kch thch phin m cc gen cu trc.

    H lactose operon ca E.Coli

  • AYZOPI

    permease

    operator

    promoter

    transacetylase

    Cu trc ca lac operon

    I. Lactose operon

    Vng iu ha Ba gen cu trc

    Gen iu ha

    V tr gn CAP

    eta Galactosidase

  • C ch hot ng Lactose operon E.coli:

    - Vi khun E.coli mn cm vi ng lactose

    - Trong mi trng c ng lactose, E.coli tit ra enzym galactosidase, c 2 chc nng:

    + Phn gii lactose thnh Glucose v galactose.

    + Chuyn lin kt 1-4 glucoside ca glucose v galactose trong lactose thnh lin kt 1-6, hnh thnh ng allolactose

    Allolactose l cht cm ng ca lac operon.

  • AYZOPI

    mRNA

    RNA pol

    Tnh hung 1

    - Khi mi trng khng c lactose, gen iu ha I tng hp

    protein c ch gn vo Operator nn ARN polymerase

    khng c c operator v cc gen cu trc khng c

    phin m.

    Khng phin m

  • AYZOPI

    repressor

    mRNA

    lactoseallolactose

    RNA pol

    galactosidase

    Tnh hung 2

    Khi mi trng c lactose, mt vi phn t lactose bin i thnh

    allolactose nh galactosidase. Allo