Lesson2 skeletal

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Transcript of Lesson2 skeletal

  • 1. Skeletal System

2. Functions of the Skeleton

  • Movement: muscles act on the bones
  • Supports and protects vital organs
  • Storage centers for vital minerals
    • Calcium
  • Produce red blood cells
    • Bone marrow

3. Structure of the Skeleton

  • Axial Skeleton 80 bones
    • Skull, Spine, Ribs and sternum

4. Axial Skeleton in blue 5. Structure of the Skeleton

  • Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones
    • Shoulders, arms, hands, hips, legs and feet

6. 7. Types of Bones

  • Long bones: Arms and Legs (femur & humerus)
    • Shaft diaphyses
    • End epiphyses
      • Form joints
      • Produce red blood cells, most of the white blood cells, and platelets

8. Types of Bones

  • Short Bones: wrist and hands (Metacarpals and Phalanges)
    • Mostly in the hands and feet

9. Types of Bones

  • Flat Bones: Ribs and Skull
    • Thin and flat shape
    • Protect vital organs such as heart, lungs and brain

10. Types of Bones

  • Irregular Bones: Shaped irregularly (vertebrae)

11. 12. Types of VertebraeC1: Atlas Holds the Head up C2: Axis Allows for rotation of the head 13. Kevin Everett Injury

  • Dislocation between c3 and c4
  • Cold therapy was used to reduce swelling

14. On the ride to the hospital, Cappuccino began cold therapy treatment. He had the ambulance air-conditioning set at the lowest temperature, as Everett received two liters (about two quarts) of ice-cold saline solution intravenously, and called the hospital to prepare a cooling blanket. There is no specific written protocol for cold therapy, Cappuccino said. But he said the goal was to lower a patients body temperature to reduce inflammation and the destruction of cells in the spinal cord, which can lead to further damage. NY TIMES 15. Cartilage

  • Strong flexible connective tissue
    • Where is cartilage found???
      • Ribs
      • Nose
      • Ears
      • Between vertebra
      • Knees
      • Basically any joints

16. Cartilage

  • Functions:
    • Line surfaces of joints
    • Allow joints to move smoothly
    • Prevent bone on bone
    • Cushion joints especially vertebra
  • New born skeleton is mostly cartilage
    • Ossification: Process by which bone is formed, renewed and repaired

17. Ligaments

  • Tough bands of fibrous, slightly elastic tissue that connect one bone to another.
  • Prevent excessive movement of the joint
  • Example: Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) attaches femur to the tibia

18. Tendons

  • Fibrous cords that attach muscle to bone or muscle to muscle
  • Allow the muscles to act on bones
  • Example: Achilles tendon attaches the calcaneous

19. Joints

  • Ball-and-socket:allows movement backward, forward, sideways, and in a circle.
    • Shoulder and hip
  • Joint with the largest range of motion

20. Joints

  • Pivot:Allows for rotation
    • Between the first two vertebrae
    • Allows for rotation of the neck and head

21. Joints

  • Hinge:Bending and straightening in one direction
    • Knees
    • Fingers
    • Elbow
  • Allow for some degree of rotation

22. Injuries of the Joints

  • Dislocation:
    • Bone slips out of the joint
    • Usually accompanied by ligament or cartilage damage
    • Needs to be fixed by a Doctor
    • Joint needs to be immobilized so tissue can heal

23. 24. 25. Injuries of the Joints

  • Torn Cartilage:
    • Sharp blow or severe twisting
    • Can be repaired with arthroscopic surgery

26. 27. Injuries of the Joints

  • Bunion:
    • Swelling of the bursa in the joint of a big toe
    • Caused by wearing shoes that are to tight
    • Might require surgery

28. 29. Injuries of the Joints

  • Arthritis:
    • Inflammation
    • Stiffness
    • Pain
    • Deformity of the joint

30. Rheumatoid arthritis 31. 32. Problems of Skeletal system 33. Fractures

  • Hairline:
    • Incomplete
    • Parts of the bone do not separate

34. 35. Fractures

  • Transverse:
    • Completely across the bone
    • Sharp or direct blow
    • Prolonged use of a damaged bone

36. 37. Fractures

  • Comminuted fracture:
    • Bone shatters
    • Usually more than two pieces

38. 39. Osteoporosis

  • Loss of bone mass
  • Bone density decreases
  • Bones break easily
  • Women are more vulnerable to this after menopause
    • Stop producing estrogen

40. 41. Scoliosis

  • Lateral curvature of the spine
  • Treatment:
    • Exercise
    • Brace
    • Surgery

42. 43. Repetitive Motion Injury

  • Damaged tissue caused by prolonged, repeated movements.
    • often job related
    • Carpal tunnel (weakness, tingling, burning)

44.

  • Bones you need to know:
  • Clavicle
  • Scapula
  • Humerus
  • Pelvis
  • Femur
  • Radius
  • Ulna
  • Petella
  • Tibia
  • Fibula
  • Mandible
  • Phalanges