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    1

    Chapter 1 Introduction to RF and Wireless

    Technology

    1.1 A Wireless World 1.2 RF Design is Challenging

    1.3 The Big Picture

    Behzad Razavi, RF M icroelectronics.

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    Scope of Course

    Active Devices(transistor &

    diode)

    Passive Components(transmission line

    & lump LC)

    Concept and Design

    of Microwave and Millimeter-wave

    Circuits (non MIC or MMIC technology)

    MicrowaveCommunication &

    Applications

    Microwave and Millimeter-wave

    Subsystem and System

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    33

    Radio-Frequency Bands (1)

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    44

    Radio-Frequency Bands (2)

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    55

    Radio-Frequency Bands (3)

    Absorption by the atmosphere in clear weather

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 6

    Chapter Outline

    A Wireless WorldRF Design Challenges

    Big Picture of

    RF System Wireless Communicationin Life

    Trend in RF Development

    Multitude of

    Disciplines

    RF Trade-offs Demand for cost and

    performance

    TX and RX

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 7

    A Wireless World

    High-speed wireless links (WiFi, Bluetooth) allow seamless connections

    among device and appliance.

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 8

    Explosive Growth of Wireless Communication

    The affordability of low cost and multiple functions finds its roots in

    Integrat ion

    Performance of RF circuits has also improved.

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 9

    RF Design is Challenging: Multi-discipline

    RF design draws upon a multitude of disciplines.

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 10

    RF Design is Challenging: Trade-offs

    RF circuits and transceivers must deal with numerous trade-offs.

    Demand for higher performance, lower cost and greater functionality

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 11

    The Big Picture: RF Communication

    TX: Drive antenna withhigh power level

    RX: Sense small signal(amplify with low noise)

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 12

    The Big Picture: Generic RF Transceiver

    Signals are upconverted/downconverted at TX/RX, by an oscillator controlled

    by a Frequency Synthesizer

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 13

    13

    Microwave Communication System (1)

    RF transceiver including passive components

    (SAW filter, LC matching network) and

    active circuits (switch, PA, LNA, mixer, VGA,

    VCO, synthesizer)

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 14

    14

    Microwave Communication System (2)

    Analog RF system Digital RF system

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 15

    15

    Microwave Communication System (3)

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 16

    16

    Microwave Communication System (4)

    Channel access method used by various radio communication technologies.

    The methods allow multiple users simultaneous access to a transmission system.

    TDMA (Time division multiple access)

    FDMA (Frequency division multiple access)

    CDMA (Code division multiple access)

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 17

    17

    Microwave Communication System (5)

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 18

    18

    Microwave Communication System (6)

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 19

    19

    Standard Multiple

    Access

    Receive

    Frequency

    (MHz)

    Transmit

    Frequency

    (MHz)

    Channel

    Spacing

    (kHz)

    Mod.

    Scheme

    Region

    DAMPS

    (IS-54)

    TDMA/FDMA 869-894 824-849 30 /4 DQPSK USA

    GSM TDMA/FDMA 935-960 890-915 200 GMSK Europe

    CDMA

    (IS-95)

    CDMA/FDMA 869-894 824-849 1250 BPSK/QPSK USA

    JDC TDMA/FDMA 940-9561447-1489

    1501-1513

    810-8261429-1441

    1453-1465

    25 /4 QPSK Japan

    W-CDMA CDMA Emerging 40,000 M-PSK USA

    ISM TDMA/CDMA/

    FDMA

    902-928 902-928 10,000 BPSK USA

    DCS-1800 TDMA/FDMA 1895-1907 1710-1785 200 GFSK UK

    CT2 FDMA 864-868 864-868 100 GFSK Europe

    Asia

    DECT TDMA/FDMA 1800-1900 1800-1900 1728 GFSK Europe

    PHS TDMA/FDMA 1895-1907 1895-1907 300 /4 DQPSK Japan

    Digital Cellular and Cordless Phone Standards

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 20

    20

    3G/3.5G/3.75G Distance(km)

    Data rate(Mbps)

    Band(GHz)

    TX peak power(dBm)

    CDMA2000

    WCDMA

    TD-SCDMA

    3~12 0.3~2 0.82~0.85

    1.92~1.98

    2.11~2.17

    33/27/24/21

    HSDPA 3~12 3.6/7.2/14.4 0.85/1.9/2.1 24

    HSUPA 3~12 3.6/7.2/14.4 0.85/1.9/2.1 24

    Specifications for 3G/4G Communication

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 21

    21

    Specifications for 3G/4G Communication

    4G Distance(km)

    Data rate(Mbps)

    Band(GHz)

    TX peak power(dBm)

    WiMAX 802.16e up to 50 10/30/70 2.3~2.7

    3.4~3.7

    5.8

    33/27/24/21

    LTE 3 50/100 0.7~0.86 (FDD)

    1.5~2.1 (FDD)

    2.3~2.6 (TDD)

    33/27/24/21

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 22

    22

    RF ICs and Modules (1)

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 23

    23

    RF ICs and Modules (1)

    GaAs X-band PA

    SiGe PA for WiMAX

    PA module for GSM mobile phone

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 24

    24

    RF ICs and Modules (2)

    GaN 40 W Class-E PA

    SiC 10 W Class-AB PA

    LDMOS PA for VHF band

    VHF transmitter

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 25

    25

    System on Chip (SoC)

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 26

    26

    Microwave/millimeter-wave Applications (1)

    Microwave Oven Specification

    AC Power: 120 Volts AC 60 Hz (13.3A) 1500 Watts, Single phase,

    3 wire grounded

    Output Power: 1200 Watts full microwave power (IEC60705)

    Frequency: 2450 MHz

    Magnetron: 2M246-050GFTimer: 0 ~ 99 min. 99 sec.

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 27

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    Microwave/millimeter-wave Applications (2)

    77 GHz

    Automotive Radar

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    Chapter1 Introduction to RF and Wireless Technology 28

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    Microwave/millimeter-wave Applications (3)

    94 GHz MMW image obtained from a scanning radiometer