Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO1 Lecture 3 Theological Developments 100 - 312 Dr. Ann T. Orlando...

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Transcript of Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO1 Lecture 3 Theological Developments 100 - 312 Dr. Ann T. Orlando...

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  • Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO1 Lecture 3 Theological Developments 100 - 312 Dr. Ann T. Orlando 25 January 2011
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  • Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO 2 Overview Review of history 100 312 Scripture: what is it; how shall we interpret it How (if at all) to use philosophy Liturgical and spiritual developments; Church leadership Introduction to Augustine This weeks readings NB: This lecture uses Scripture as the thread; other threads could have been chosen: Christology, Theodicy, Church authority (Ecclesiology), Anthropology, Ethics, Spirituality; these threads combine together to form the complete story of the early Church
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  • Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO 3 Third Strand: Philosophical Background (from first lecture) Athenian Philosophy Before Alexander Socrates and Plato: Platonism (and indirectly skepticism); Academy Aristotle: Platos student, founder of Lyceum and Aristotelianism Hellenistic Philosophy (see Acts 17:18) Epicurus, fought in Alexanders army; opposed to Plato, founder of Epicureanism; the Garden Rabbinic word for atheist derived from Epicurus Zeno: opposed to Epicurus, founder of Stoicism; the Stoa Example: Prolog to Johns Gospel Neo-Platonism centered in Alexandria 250 AD Note that ancient philosophy was considered a way of life; not an academic discipline Catholic Christianity has always used contemporary philosophical methods as the language of theology and as an aid to interpret the Bible; philosophy as the handmaid of theology. Example: Virtue
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  • Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO 4 History Overview 100-312 Roman Empire at its height (Second Century) Christians suffer waves of persecutions, local in Second Century; Empire wide in Third Century (worst under Decius and Diocletian) Orthodox (Catholic) Church honors martyrs; but struggles to determine what to do about lapsed; orthodox Church opposed to Donatists Early Christian theologians develop arguments supporting Christianity (Apologies) Rome recognized as the capital of Christianity
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  • Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO 5 Issues Surrounding Christian Scripture The OT (Septuagint): in or out? Relation of creator God to Father of Jesus Christ How can there be suffering if the creator God is a good God? (theodicy problem) Is God anthropomorphic; as OT might indicate? Relation to Judaism What is in NT? Paul primary or Gospels What literature about Jesus is sacred What writings of early believers is in/out (e.g., First Letter of Clement, Epistle of Barnabas, Shepherd of Hermes) Answers to these questions determined which books considered authoritative by various Christian groups In this era many Christian groups selected books to support their theology; Canon is from Greek word for rule or measure Stoic philosophical term
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  • Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO 6 2 nd C Gnosticism Gnosticism is really a catch all term for several groups of early Christians which shared some beliefs, usually with a Platonic philosophical background Gnostic is from Greek, gnosis, knowledge Most Gnostic Christians believed: Jesus was divine, not human (docetism); Jesus was the son of Sophia (Wisdom) and God the Father Physical, material world was, at best, irrelevant, at worst evil Believers have special, secret, knowledge of divine things But only a few are believers; most humans do not have souls
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  • Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO 7 2nd C Gnosticism: Scripture and Gnosticism Gnostics rejected the OT God of OT was evil, creator God God of OT was anthropomorphic, not spiritual Gnostics accepted many different types of literature about Jesus Gospel of Truth, Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of Philip; Recent discovery (1945) of many Gnostic texts at Nag Hammadi, Egypt Key Gnostic: Valentinus, early 2 nd C, Alexandria and Rome
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  • Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO 8 2 nd C Marcion: OT Out; only Paul, Luke In NT Most important impetus for development of Scriptural canon was Marcion (c. 110-160) Wealthy sea captain, who carefully studied Christian literature Initially part of orthodox Roman church Decided that only Paul and parts of Luke were canonical Opposed to Judaism and so rejected OT Left Roman church to start his own church; spread very rapidly around Mediterranean; Marcionites in West for next 200 years; in East much longer
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  • Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO 9 Defenders (Developers) of Orthodoxy 2nd Century defenders of orthodoxy St. Ignatius of Antioch St. Justin Martyr St. Irenaeus Tertullian Note how these people from different parts of Empire knew of each other; network of orthodox believers; Rome, Antioch, Alexandria centers for large, famous Christian schools
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  • Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO 10 St. Justin Martyr (100 165) and Tatian Justin and his Christian school at Rome seems to have been very well known Justin used many Stoic concepts in his apologies (he was after all writing at time of Marcus Aurelius) Tatian was from Syria; came to Rome to study with Justin Tatian wrote the first harmony of gospels that is extant (Justin may also have developed one, now lost) Tatians harmony became canonical, used in liturgies in Syria Harmony developed and used specifically against Marcionites Tatian eventually became a gnostic, encratite sect
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  • Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO 11 St. Irenaeus (120-200) Born in Asia Minor (120-200) Knew Polycarp; who knew Ignatius of Antioch Immigrated to Lyon, France; became Bishop Wrote extensively against Gnostics (Valentinus in particular) and Marcion Recognized orthodox Church in Rome as having primacy Quotes Ignatius, Polycarp, Justin Probably died a martyr
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  • Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO 12 Tertullian (160-215) Born in Carthage, North Africa; trained as a lawyer First Latin theologian; much of vocabulary of theological Latin originated with him; but also wrote some works in Greek Sacrament Trinity Vehement works against Marion and gnostics More works extant from him than any other 2cd C author Critical influence on Cyprian (3 rd C) and Augustine (4 th C) Questioned some (but not all) use of philosophy in theology, What has Athens to do with Jerusalem Near end of his life may have become a Montanist Breaks with Rome over discipline
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  • Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO 13 2nd C: Montanists Continuing Prophecy In NT Started by Montus, Prisca, Maximillia late 2cd Century in Asia Minor Believed in continuing prophecy and revelation led by Holy Spirit Believed apocalypse immanent Believed that once Baptized, sins could not be forgiven (similar to Donatists); Church only for pure
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  • Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO 14 Christian Systematic Theologian: Origen (185-254) Born in Alexandria; towering giant over Eastern theology; many subsequent debates trace to how to interpret Origen May have studied in same philosophical classes as Plotinus; also knew St. Clement of Alexandria (not to be confused with late 1 st C Pope St. Clement) Along with Clement, Origen preserves the works of Alexandrian Jewish philosopher and theologian Philo Traveled extensively, including to Rome and met with Hippolytus Wrote: An apology, Contra Celsum Many Biblical commentaries, including on OT books Biblical scholarship: Hexapla comparing Hebrew, and several different versions of Greek OT (not extant) Different ways to interpret Bible, especially OT allegorically (debt to Philo) systematic presentation of Christianity: On First Principles Suffered persecution during Decius reign, eventually died from wounds Not declared a saint because of controversies about his ideas after he died
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  • Lecture 3; Theology 100 -312; ATO 15 Styles of Scriptural Interpretation More literal; associated with Antioch Paul of Samosata (3 rd C) St. John Chrysostom (late 4 th C) Highly allegorical; associated with Alexandria; based on Stoic interpretive techniques Origen (3 rd C) St. Gregory of Nyssa (4 th C) NB: Church now recognizes two senses of Scripture: Literal and Spiritual; Spiritual includes allegorical, tropological (moral) and anagogical (goal) see CCC
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