Lecture 2 Cell Structure, Mitosis and Meiosis. Study Questions - Lecture 2 1)Describe the major...

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Transcript of Lecture 2 Cell Structure, Mitosis and Meiosis. Study Questions - Lecture 2 1)Describe the major...

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Lecture 2 Cell Structure, Mitosis and Meiosis Slide 2 Study Questions - Lecture 2 1)Describe the major components of a typical animal cell and their function(s). 2)What is the cell cycle? At which stage is the genetic material replicated? What events take place at each phase? 3)Discuss the concepts of homologous chromosomes, diploidy, and haploidy. What characteristics are shared between two chromosomes considered to be homologous? 4)What is mitosis? Describe the events that characterize each stage of mitosis. 5)Describe how chromosomes are named on the basis of their centromere placement. 6)What is meiosis? Describe the events that characterize each stage of meiosis. 7)Contrast mitosis and meiosis. Explain why meiosis leads to significant genetic variation while mitosis does not. Slide 3 CELLS Slide 4 Cells - fundamental unit of life Prokaryotes -single celled -no nucleus -no organelles -DNA = single, circular molecule - e.g., bacteria Eukaryotes -single or multicellular -nucleus with nuclear membrane -DNA packaged into chromosomes -organelles present Biological Kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Slide 5 Slide 6 Cellular Components Cell membrane Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Mitochondria Microtubules (centriole) Nucleus (nucleolus) Chromatin/Chromosomes Slide 7 Fluid-Mosaic Model of Membrane Structure - the thing surrounding the internal components of the cell Bilayer (2 layers)- of proteins and lipids Slide 8 Endoplasmic Reticulum-set of interconnected membranes. 2 types. Rough ER (studded with Ribosomes) - involved in production and modification of proteins Smooth ER- (no ribosomes) - involved in production of lipids, detoxification of molecules, and calcium storage in muscle cells *Ribosomes formed in nucleolus* Slide 9 Golgi Apparatus After proteins and lipids are made by the Endoplasmic Reticulum they may be modified further and/or stored by the GA. Slide 10 Lysosome - formed by GA, contain enzymes that break down cellular debris and foreign substances brought into the cell Slide 11 Mitochondria Aerobic respiration produces ATP Has own genome Slide 12 Microtubule Cell shape, motion, and growth. Slide 13 Microtubule- composed of tubulin. Both cilia and flagella have the same Structure of microtubules: 9+2. Forms spindle during mitosis & meiosis Slide 14 Nuclear Membrane or Envelope - two membranes which form the nucleus, is porous. Allows RNA to leave nucleus. Slide 15 Chromosome = DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) + associated proteins (mainly histones) = packaged DNA Slide 16 Slide 17 Slide 18 Cell Cycle: replication of genetic material (=DNA) and nuclear division (= mitosis + cytokinesis). Slide 19 Cell Cycle: Interphase Before mitosis Time of high metabolic activity DNA replicated and synthesized Three phases: G1, S, and G2 G1(gap 1)- longest stage of cell cycle, RNA, protein sysnthesis S (synthesis)- DNA replicated, 2 chromatids per chromosome, chromatids genetically identical G2(gap 2)- RNA synthesis, not well understood Slide 20 Cell Cycle: Mitosis Process of cell division(nuclear division) which produces daughter cells genetically identical to the parent cell Four Phases (P-M-A-T): prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Upon completion of the phases of mitosis (nuclear division) the cell officially divides into two by a process called cytokinesis - division of cytoplasm Slide 21 Interphase Not part of mitosis DNA is replicated chromosomes start to condense Slide 22 Chromosome duplication Slide 23 Prophase *Chromosomes coil and condense further. *Nucler membrane breaks down/ disappears. *Microtubules increase in number, spindle apparatus forms. Slide 24 Metaphase *Nuclear membrane completely disappeared *Chromosomes move to equator of cell - begin to line up *Chromosomes attach to spindle via kinetochore Slide 25 Centromeric Region Slide 26 Anaphase *Movement of chromosomes via microtubules to opposite sides of the cell. One chromatid to one end the other Chromatid to the opposite end Slide 27 Telophase *Genetically identical info at each pole *Spindle fibers disappear *Chromosomes uncoil *Nuclear envelope reforms around Cytokinesis - is separate from mitosis, = pinching of cell/divison of cytoplasm. Mitosis + Cytokinesis result in two identical daughter cells. Slide 28 Mitosis in a plant cell Slide 29 Mitosis in an onion root Slide 30 Chromosomes and Chromatids During Mitosis Begin Interphase After Interphase After Prophase After Metaphase After Anaphase After telophase # of Chromosomes 444484 # of Chromatids 488884 Slide 31 Meiosis Cell division which results in halpoid sex cells (i.e., egg and sperm) One replication of the genetic material (DNA) during interphase, but two nuclear divisions (meiosis I and meiosis II). Results in haploid (N) cells (= gametes in animals) from an initial diploid (2N) cell Very similar to mitosis except that the cells produced are not genetically identical. Slide 32 The human life cycle Slide 33 Overview of meiosis: how meiosis reduces chromosome number Slide 34 Independent Assortment Slide 35 The stages of meiotic cell division: Meiosis I Slide 36 Crossing-Over/Synapsis Slide 37 A Tetrad from the Grasshopper Slide 38 The stages of meiotic cell division: Meiosis I Slide 39 The stages of meiotic cell division: Meiosis II Slide 40 Oogenesis, 2n = 4 Slide 41 Spermatogenesis, 2n = 4 Slide 42 SEM of sea urchin sperm fertilizing egg Slide 43 Chromosomes and Chromatids During Meiosis I Begin Interphase After Interphase After Prophase I After Metaphase I After Anaphase I After Telophase I # of Chromosomes 444442 # of Chromatids 488884 Slide 44 Chromosomes and Chromatids During Meiosis II After Prophase II After Metaphase II After Anaphase II After Telophase II # of Chromosomes 2242 # of Chromatids 4442 Slide 45 A comparison of mitosis and meiosis Slide 46 A comparison of mitosis and meiosis: summary