Lecture #1. Sci-Sci Method

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    METHODSOF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE

    LECTURE #1

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    4 Ways

    of Acquiring Knowledge

    Tenacity

    AuthorityA prioriScience

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    Authority ~ knowledge is valid because it isclaimed as valid by a respectable source orauthority~ better than tenacityEx: teachers, artists, politicians, experts,opinion leaders

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    A priori ~ agreeing with reason, not withexperience

    ~ method of intuition~ natural inclination toward truthEx: The way we decide in our family or

    personal lives ~ out of gut feel

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    Science ~ or scientific method~ self-correcting

    ~ the method must be such that the ultimateconclusion of every man shall be the same ~ a positivist view

    Ex: national census, research studies, polls

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    Schools of Thought

    Rationalism ~ acquiring knowledge thru theprocess of reasoning

    ~ information is stated and logical rules arefollowed in order to arrive at an acceptableconclusion~ permits us to hypothesize

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    Empiricism ~ gaining knowledge thruobservation of real events

    ~ knowing by experience through the senses~ it is not enough that we arrive at knowledgethrough reasoning; we must experience theseevents through our senses

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    Science

    A combination of rationalism and empiricismA way of thinking that involves a continuous

    and systematic interplay of rational thoughtand empirical observation

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    Group Discussion

    Consider these:

    ~ science is difficult~ scientists are weird people who have gray

    hair, are bespectacled, wear white laboratorygowns, are old and have that strange stare as

    they sit in their laboratories tinkering withsome glass tubes, and so forth

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    Points to Ponder

    Do you agree that science is better left to thescientist than have the public tinker with it?

    That science is the business of scientists andthat the ordinary individual has nothing to dowith it?

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    Two Themes

    Science is a method of inquiryScience is a product of such inquiry

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    objective

    Unbiased, unprejudiced, detached,impersonal

    Viewing things as they areYou dont go ego -involved in research actsA hallmark of any scientific endeavor

    Shuns away personal biases andidiosyncrasies

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    accurate

    Striving to be definite, precise, exactA function of research measurement

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    systematic

    Science is methodical, thorough, and regularClassificatory schemes

    Interrelatedness of various partsParts form a coherent whole

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    analysis

    The identification and study of thecomponent parts or elements which make upthingsBreaking down a whole into parts, aprocedure into steps, a question into issues

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    determinate

    Relatively agreed-upon defined traits orboundaries

    Ex: Orgcom does not deal with fiscalmanagement; but both Orgcom and FiscalAdministration look at things in the contextof their own fields

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    Aims of Science

    To describeTo explain

    To predict

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    Description

    What are the facts ?What is the case ?

    What is out there ?

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    Prediction

    Making inferences from facts or lawssuch and such will happen

    if these conditions prevail so and so will occur You leapfrog into the future

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    Theory

    A set of propositionsWith defined and interrelated constructs

    Interrelations among sets of variablesA systematic view of phenomenaExplains a phenomenon

    A way of seeing

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    The Scientific Method

    Identify the problemDefine the problem

    Formulate hypothesisDeduce consequencesTest hypothesis

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    Problem Identification

    An obstacle to understandingA felt difficulty

    A knowledge gap

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    Defining the Problem

    Observe the problem situationProblematize!

    Intellectualize what may be initially anemotional observation of a situation

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    Hypothesizing

    Suggest solutions to the problemCraft tentative propositions about relations

    between variables

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    Deductive Reasoning

    If each hypothesis is true, certainconsequences can lead to more significantproblems or implications

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    Hypothesis Testing

    Search for observable evidence that willconfirm or nullify consequences

    Finding which hypothesis goes withobservable facts ~ offering most reliablesolution to a problemTesting the relation expressed by thehypothesis

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    In concrete terms

    There is doubt, a barrier, an emotionaldisturbance

    You struggle to define the problemYou study the literatureYou analyze experiences

    You wait for an inventive leap of the mind You formulate hypothesisYou deduce the empirical implications

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    A more concrete example

    Problem : Job Satisfaction (JS)What is the relation between JS and Job

    Position (JP)?Hypothesis : Ones JP in the organizationalladder determines ones level of JS As one climbs up the organizationalstructure, the more satisfied the personbecomes in his/her job

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    Getting into real action

    Ill conduct a survey to test my hypothesisAnalysis of survey data may lead to (1)JS and

    JP are directly related (as one goes up anddown the organizational ladder, his/her JSfollows), or (2) JS and JP do not affect eachother (JS is not determined by JP; thus, one

    may be satisfied or dissatisfied with his/her job regardless of ones JP)

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    Your Turn!

    Think of your own Problem . Problematize!Follow the rigors of the Scientific MethodPresent your output ~