Learning theories, instructional design theories and instructional design models
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Learning theories, instructional design theories and instructional design models
Role of metaphors in designCharacteristic of the development of a new type of urban car by Honda were slogans and phrases that were a form of explication of the personal hunches of various people. If the automobile were an organism, how should it evolve ? The phrase described an ideal. As team members argued and discussed what this slogan might mean, they came up with an answer in the form of yet another slogan : man-maximum, machine-minimum. This captured the teams belief that the ideal car should somehow transcend the traditional human-machine relationship.
Role of metaphors in designFrom considering how automobiles (taken as living beings) would evolve emerged the concept of Tall Boy (a car that grows higher without becoming otherwise bigger) that provided a background for modern city cars.Linguist George Lakoff and philosopher Mark Johnson Metaphors We Live By:The essence of metaphor is understanding and experiencing one kind of thing in terms of another.
Role of metaphors in designNonaka and Takeuchi (1995) provide examples of the importance of externalization of tacit knowledge for innovation in Japanese firms. Personal hunches must be convertible to explicit knowledge and shared with others to be fruitful. Tacit (or implicit) knowledge: mental models, experiences, stories, rituals and skills residing in the individual and private mind. Explicit knowledge: formal models, processes, rules and procedures which can be communicated externally
Nonaka I. & Takeuchi H., The Knowledge-Creating Company, Oxford University Press, 1995.
Role of metaphors in design
Role of metaphors in designImplicit metaphors of learningInstructional design theories and modelsDiscussions about what learning isLearning theories
Discussing metaphors and proverbs of learningLearning is..
What metaphors have been used for describing learning theories?How are learning metaphors related with instructional designs?Which learning theories are behind your learning metaphors?
Some metaphors and proverbs about learningPlanting flowers -- A seed is planted in my mind which I nurture with water and sun in the faith that it will sprout and grow.Being a detective -- It's all about uncovering the facts, looking for clues and asking the right questions until the whole mystery makes sense.A quest -- I'm searching for that illusive something and every step I take brings me closer to what I need to know, but I never get there ... it's a continuous journey.Estonian proverbsEla ppimise tarvis ja pi elamise tarvis.Kes pib, see ka teab.T petab tegijat.T petab iseennast.Harjutus teeb meistriks.Inimene pib hllist kunni hauani.Tarkust ei saa kulbiga pha tsta.
Learning theoriesLearning theory is the set of principles about learning:consisting of the descriptions what initiates learninghow learning process proceeds,and what is the result of learning (Driscoll, 1994). Learning theories describe the essence of learning and predict the results of learning. ButLearning theories are general and give few concrete guidelines how to implement these in certain situations.
Black box metaphorSkinner (1950) introduced behavioural learning theory: A science of behavior must eventually deal with behavior in its relation to certain manipulable variables.
Response strenghteningmetaphor1900-1950 Learning as response strenghteningTeacher gives punishment and rewards, student reacts with teacher defined behaviourDrill, tutorial, assessment test centered learning
Principles of behaviourismPavlov dog conditioning reflexPavlov provided the basis of behaviourism highlighting the importance of stimulus for learning.Neutral Stimulus (NS) => No Response (NR)NS + Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) => Unconditioned Response (UCR)Conditioned Stimulus (CS) => Conditioned Response (CR)
Principles of behavioural learningSkinner boxSkinner, 1950:1. Behaviour that is positively reinforced will reoccur; intermittent reinforcement is particularly effective 2. Information should be presented in small amounts so that responses can be reinforced ("shaping") 3. Reinforcements will generalize across similar stimuli ("stimulus generalization") producing secondary conditioning
General educational implications of behaviorismEmphasis on behavior: students should be active respondentspeople are most likely to learn when they actually have a chance to behave. Student learning must be evaluatedonly measurable behaviour changes can confirm that learning has taken place.
Drill and practiceRepetition of stimulus-response habits strengthens those habits.Promotes the acquisition of knowledge or skill through repetitive practice.Refers to small tasks such as the memorization of spelling or vocabulary words, or the practicing of arithmetic facts and may also be found in more complex learning tasks or physical education games and sports. Involves repetition of specific skills.To be meaningful to learners, the skills built through drill-and-practice should become the building blocks for more meaningful learning.Drills are usually repetitive and are used as a reinforcement tool.
Advantages of drill programspersonalizedhelp learners master materials at their own pacemainly for the beginning learnerfor students who are experiencing learning problemsinteractive nature DRILL program ABCrecognition of the type of skill being developed use of appropriate strategies to develop competenciesuse of games to increase motivationprovide feedback to students
Drill programsChemistry equationsShow answer!Check answer!3 x Show answer => new problemNew taskResults: solved/correct
Drill programsMath 1Math 2
Choose activity and numbersCheck answerTimercorrect/wrong answersInteractivityCompetitionFeedback
Drill programsLanguage learningCheck answerChoose topicFeedbackTest
Drill programsMusicSounds -feedback from program
Drill programsFind correct!FeedbackTrials and error methodPunishing systemGame elementsPhases: drilling and testing knowledgeBiology
Behavioural elements in computer gamesSystem of tokens in computergames serves as the rewarding element.Rewards and tokens are the source of extrincic motivation.When behaviour is conditioned with tokens the behaviour itself becomes pleasant and can turn into the source of intrincic motivation to play the game.
Behavioural elements in computer gamesGaining experience to proceed in levels
Gaining points to earn money to buy new weaponsWarrock
Behavioural elements in computer gamesDecisions give resourse- or environment points and you can make the environment better. When your health points decrease you can see that the environmental conditions get worse. www.honoloko.com
Player typesAgressive can do anything to winAmbicious/calculating is always motivated by victoryKamikaze does all he can to sabotage the winning chancesCautious takes minimum risks Manin et al. 2006
What other types could you identify related with tokens and rewards in games that are related with behavioural learning ideas?
Information processing metaphor1960-1970 learning as information processing (Mayer,1996).Teacher is transmissing knowledge, students are receivers of knowledgeTextbooks and other content management systems.
Knowledge acquisition metaphorAccording to the knowledge-acquisition metaphor learning is the construction of well-organised knowledge structures that provide students with the means of interacting with the important aspects of the problem situations. Acquiring scientific knowledge takes place through conceptual change where intuitive knowledge is replaced/modified with scientifically correct knowledge. Knowledge acquisition metaphor is based on the idea that our brain is a container and the learning process is filling this container (Bereiter, 2002).
Anna Sfard 1998
Brain as the computer metaphorComputer has information inputs and action outputs similarly as we receive signals from the environment with our sensory organs and react with behavours that emerge in response to the outside signalsInformation is recorded, decoded and processed both inside the computer and the brain, this processing provides the output behaviours. informationreaction
Model of cognitive architecture
Dual-coding theoryPaivio (1986) "Human cognition is unique in that it has become specialized for dealing simultaneously with language and with nonverbal objects and events.A dual coding theory of learning from visual and verbal materials. (Mayer, 1993)
Cognitive load theoryProvides guidelines to assist in the presentation of information in such a way that helps learners to optimize their intellectual performance. Is based on the assumptions of:an effectively unlimited longterm memory anda limited working memory (e.g., Baddeley, 1986), Aims at designing instructions that do not overburden the learners cognitive capabilities.
Applications of information processing metaphorhttp://mudelid.5dvision.ee/
Knowledge construction metaphor1980-1990 learning as knowledge construction (Mayer,1996).Student is constructing knowledge on the basis of earlier knowledge in real situations, teacher is guiding the learning process guided inquirydiscussions
Steven Weinberg free-floating metaphorConstructivism has been illustrated by using the free floating metaphor that emphasises that the rules to c