Learning theories

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Courtesy of Dr. Ferdinand B. PitaganAssistant ProfessorUniversity of the Philippines Diliman

Transcript of Learning theories

  • 1. University of the PhilippinesCollege of EducationEducational Technology DepartmentEDTECH101 Learning Theories that InfluenceUtilization of InstructionalMedia ResourcesFerdinand B. Pitagan, PhD Professor of Education

2. Humanism vs. Technology High DCHumanism AB LowHigh Technology 3. Educational Technology: Foundations Communications Systems approachPsychology 4. Mediaas a channel of communication FeedbackTeacherLearnerSchramms model Field of Experience/ Feedback 5. Dales Cone of ExperienceSource: from Dale, E., Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching, 1st Edition, 1969. Reprinted with permission of Wadsworth/Thompson Learning. 6. Systems Approach 7. 14 3 2 8 5 6 7 910 8. Psychology Behaviorism Cognitivism Constructivism 9. Behaviorism1. Early behaviorism -- Pavlov (1849 - 1936)Focus on reflexive behavior FoodUnconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Salivation (natural, not learned) BellConditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response (to Salivation bell) 10. Behaviorism2. B.F. SkinnerFocus on voluntary behavior and reinforcementLearning is a function of change in overt behavior. 11. B. F. Skinner 1904 1990 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1b-NaoWUowQ English MajorPsychologyBook, Wallden IISkinner box 12. Behaviorism--- A person comes under the control of a stimulating environment, responds to subtle properties of that environment, and responds to it in many complex ways because of the consequences contingent upon earlier responses.---- (Operant Conditioning) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_ctJqjlrHA6) Initial behavior 7) Consequences (reinforcement/punishment) 8) Next behavior 13. Behaviorism How to shape behavior and maintain it in strength? How to design instruction?Use Contingencies of ReinforcementA certain behavior consequences of that behavior 14. Behaviorism1. Positive reinforcement3. Instant reinforcement5. Frequent reinforcement7. Multiple scheduled reinforcement 15. BehaviorismUse of Media:Teaching machineProgrammed instructionStructuredFocus on objectives 16. CognitivismFocus on Active Mental Process1) Information Processing Model2) Mental Development Model 17. Cognitivism 1) Information Processing Model Sensory registerShort-term memory-- Working memoryLong-term memory 18. Cognitivism 1) Information Processing Model Sensory register AttentionShort-term memory-- Working memory Remembering Not ForgettingLong-term memory 19. Cognitivism 1) Information Processing ModelAttention gaining strategies: Attention Sensory registere.g. visuals, paradoxShort-term memoryRemembering -- Working memoryActive processing strategies: e.g. chucking/organizing contentRetrieval strategies:Not forgettinge.g. relate new info. to old info.Long-term memory 20. Cognitivism2) Mental Development Modelhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fcjPkPIwsog Swiss philosopher and psychologistJean Piaget(1896-1980)http://www.time.com/time/time100/scientist/profile/piaget.html 21. Cognitivism2) Mental Development Model Observe/listen to childrenPiaget: What makes the wind?Julia: The trees.P: How do you know?J: I saw them waving their arms.P: How does that make the wind?J (waving her hand in front of his face): Like this. Only they are bigger. And there are lots of trees.P: What makes the wind on the ocean?J: It blows there from the land. No. Its the waves...## Four stages of childhood development(sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational) 22. Cognitivism2) Mental Development ModelSchemata(Mental structures)Assimilation: Accommodatio n: modifyingNew info. intoexisting existing structure/creatstructureing new one 23. Cognitivism2) Mental Development ModelAssimilation?? Accommodation?? 24. Cognitivism2) Mental Development Model Schemata (Mental structures)Assimilation:Accommodation: modifyingNew info. into existing existingstructure/creatstructure ing new one Useful instructional strategies Advanced Organizers Transfer Mnemonics Organization and more.. 25. ConstructivismDifferent from Objectivism such as Behaviorism/CognitivismObjective entities/realitiesThe correct structure 26. ConstructivismConstructivistic philosophyA real world we experience Multiple perspectives 27. ConstructivismSituating our cognitive experiences in authentic activitiesReal world problems emphasized 28. Constructivism Learning: ???? Teaching: ???? 29. Constructivism Learning: based on experience/ construction of meaning/social interaction Instructional strategies??- social collaboration- multiple perspectives- negotiation of meanings- situated in real cases 30. Social ConstructivismLev Vygotskyhttp://www.kolar.org/vygotsky/ 31. Social Constructivism Lev Vygotsky1. Between people, then inside self2. Zone of Proximal Development (ZDP)- social interactions 32. Remember!! (A. Bednar, et al. ) Instructional design and development must be based upon some theory of learning and/orcognition; effective design is possible only if thedeveloper has developed reflexive awareness ofthe theoretical basis underlying the design. 33. Remember !! Theories of Learning and prescriptions forpractice must go hand in hand. (T. Duffy and D. Jonassen)Instructional Design (Prescriptions for practice) ConstructivismBehaviorism Cognitivism 34. Activity1. Case 1: Japan New teachers How to serve physically challenged students1. Case 2:USAA mix of slower and faster learners; thirty 7th gradersTeach existing of different cultures in Asia3. Case 3:ParisFilipino as a second language; intermediate levelA mix of 10 senior citizens; 10 university studentsTeach them Filipino 4. Case 4:IndonesiaHigh school students (above average)Teach to be active, creative 35. NEXT MEETING:Issues and trends in the use of media technology for classroom instructions