Leaks, Breaks, Disasters and Near Misses: Stress ... ... Leaks, Breaks, Disasters and Near Misses:...

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  • Leaks, Breaks, Disasters and Near Misses:

    Stress Assessment for Pipes and Engineers Colin Kristiansen, P.Eng., MBA

  • May 2, 2016

    2 Outline

    Purpose

    Local Examples

    Assessment Tools

    Lessons Learned

  • May 2, 2016

    3 Purpose

    Failure is Best Teacher

    Share Experience and

    Some Lessons Learned Break - Vancouver

    Leak - Richmond

    Near Disaster - Delta

  • May 2, 2016

    4 Historic – First Narrows Crossing

    First Narrows

    Crossing

  • May 2, 2016

    5 Yes, Vancouver can burn

    1886

  • May 2, 2016

    6 East-West Connector

    Hyprescon Pipe

  • May 2, 2016

    7

    Haney 2 and 3 Water Main

    Relocations

  • May 2, 2016

    8 South Fraser Perimeter Road

  • May 2, 2016

    9 MV Watermain & Delta Forcemain

    1050mm Steel MV Watermain1988

    1050mm Steel Delta Forcemain 1988

    Preload Failure

    Pushed 1m to the south 2015

    Previously pushed 0.75m to the north 1998

    No yielding calculated

    Outside of safety factors for various design

    standards

    Visual inspection and Magnetic particle

    inspection

  • May 2, 2016

    10

    Structural Analysis

    • like round beam, but pressurized, and with odd joints

    • considerations

    • Design standard, material (mechanical behaviour, allowable stresses/strain, etc.), temperatures, pressures, loading, displacements, condition of the pipe (corroded, damaged, eroded, etc), how is the pipe supported, types of joints and fittings used, wall thickness, D/t ratio, thermal expansion, expansion/flexible joints, vibration, plug loading (steam lines) or transients (water hammer), Pressure relief valves, seismic…

    Software

    • Caesar II (Intergraph)

    • Autopipe (Bentley)

    • for large diameter piping, district energy pipes

    Investigations - deductive reasoning

    Tools

  • May 2, 2016

    11 Collingwood Trunk Sewer

    1. 750 mm Collingwood Trunk Sewer

  • May 2, 2016

    12 Investigations – Richmond DEU Pipe

    Leakage at the south west assembly

    November 27, 2015. (photo by Corix)

  • May 2, 2016

    13

    At least we aren’t in the oil and gas

    industry

    Hastings St

    2007

  • May 2, 2016

    14 Break Statistics

    Over 1/2 of the failures due to joint

    pull out.

    Pipeline damage rates for the

    Kobe earthquake are shown in

    the table below.

    Kobe, Japan, 1995

    Failure Rates/km - Number of Failures

    DIP CIP PVC Steel AC

    PipeLength (km) 1874 405 232 30 24

    Barrel 0 9 0.63 257 0.38 88 0.33 10 1.24 30

    Fitting 0 1 0.31 124 0.17 40 0.03 1 0.04 1

    Pulled Joint 0.47 880 0.49 199 0.33 76 0 0 0.37 9

    Joint Failure 0 2 0.06 25 0.5 115 0.07 2 0.08 2

    Joint Intrusion 0 5 0 1 0.01 3 0 0 0 0

    Failure Mode

    From Donald Ballantyne

  • May 2, 2016

    15

    Ductile Iron C1xx Series B&S, RG, R 5 5 4 4 18

    Polyethylene C906 Fused 4 5 5 5 19

    Steel C2xx Series Arc Welded 5 5 4 5 19

    Steel None Riveted 5 5 4 4 18

    Steel C2xx Series B&S, RG, R 5 5 4 4 18

    Concrete Cylinder C300, C303 B&S, R 3 4 4 3 14

    Ductile Iron C1XX Series B&S, RG, UR 5 5 4 1 15

    PVC C900, C905 B&S, R 3 3 4 3 13

    Steel C2xx B&S, RG, UR 5 5 4 1 15

    AC > 8" D C4xx Series Coupled 2 4 5 1 12

    Cast Iron > 8" D None B&S, RG 2 4 4 1 11

    PVC C900, C905 B&S, UR 3 3 4 1 11

    Concrete Cylinder C300, C303 B&S, UR 3 4 4 1 12

    AC

  • May 2, 2016

    16 Lessons Learned

    1. First Narrows – Old things leak, break. Material

    and soil transitions weak points. Severe

    consequences

    2. City E/W Concrete Pipe – New isn’t always better

    3. SFPR – Precautionary measures can induce risk

    4. Delta example – Peat moves, a lot. Some pipes

    can move a lot

    5. Richmond DEU – Minor details matter.

    6. Collingwood Trunk Sewer – Construction risky.

    Emergency planning helps

    7. Hastings Street – Survey, record drawing, and

    caution around critical infrastructure matter

    8. Kobe – material and joints make a big difference

    9. Assessments – Not that common in water

    industry

  • March 11, 2011

    17 Questions?