Leadership: The Individual & The Group Presented by Phillip Penna, MA Coordinator Ontario...
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Leadership: The Individual & The Group Presented by Phillip Penna, MA Coordinator Ontario Environment Network http://www.oen.ca - firstname.lastname@example.org tel: 705-840-2888 fax: 705-840-5862 Slide 2 Leadership: The Individual & The Group The presentation is based on the work of Pierre M. Turquet & Wilfred Bions Theory of Group Development Slide 3 Questions we hope to address: 1. What groups do to stay functional, healthy & successful 2. How to identify barriers and how to overcome them 3. How to facilitate and utilize the creativity of each member of the group 4. The role of leadership in the group in accomplishing all of the above Slide 4 The Group Defined Group size: 8-12 (maximum 16) persons A Small Group must have a Primary Task It must carry the Primary Task (PT) out Slide 5 The Group Structure Structure and PT are internally linked There exists a boundary between the group and its surrounding environment There will be control mechanisms to guide & assist transactions through the boundary The fundamental aspect of Leadership is Boundary Control Slide 6 The Group Leader The Leader must look externally to guide the groups interactions with surrounding environment They must also look internally to guide & assist the internal interactions of the group By looking both internally and externally, the leader is able to maintain Boundary Control Slide 7 The Group: Two States of Existence Within every group, two distinct States exist and operate at the same time, they are: Sophisticated Working Group: the manifest level of group performance Basic Assumption Group: unconscious defenses against anxiety or unpleasantness Slide 8 Sophisticated Working Group - Predetermined, consciously accepted PT - Members are aware of the PT and are able to define it - The group is able to re-define the task - The group is highly self-aware - Determines skills in group & evaluates them against the PT - Thus leadership and support roles shift depending upon the demands of the task Slide 9 Sophisticated Working Group - Is marked by freedom - Members respect and accept one another - Responsibility is collective, with members aware of their roles and responsibilities - Members use dialogue and reflection to transfer knowledge and enhance learning - Work is structured and organized - Its structure is related to the PT Slide 10 Basic Assumption Groups - PT arises from within the group and is pursued solely for the members satisfaction - Time boundaries vanish as if time was unlimited - Critical dialogue & reflection is avoided / discouraged - Result is a breakdown of group effectiveness - 4 Kinds of BA Groups: a) Dependencyb) Fight/Flight c) Pairingd) Oneness Slide 11 BA Groups: Dependence - Feelings, thoughts and actions directed toward making someone the sole leader of the group - Members look to leader for all solutions, structure, etc. -Insistence on simplistic solutions Slide 12 BA Groups: Dependence (cont.) - Members sabotage leader by providing partial or inadequate information - Members demonstrate disappointment and hostility toward leader - Leader may be expelled from group or demoted - Group seeks out new leader Slide 13 BA Groups: Fight/Flight - Group behaves as if its purpose is to fight or flee a real or imaginary enemy - Member refuse to critically evaluate themselves - Members are singled out and scapegoated - Weaknesses (as perceived by the group) are not tolerated Slide 14 BA Groups: Pairing - Members rely on a pair within the group for all creative effort - Great interest in creative process - Hopeful expressions of anticipation / use of cliches - Solutions or leaders generated by the pair are sabotaged or destroyed by the group Slide 15 BA Groups: Oneness Members seek to join in a powerful union with an omnipotent force, unobtainably high, to surrender self for passive participation, and thereby feel existence, well-being, and wholeness. (Turquet) (Italics are mine) Slide 16 BA Groups: Leadership - Leadership is personified - Leadership is mythical in nature - BA Groups are self-contained - BA Groups appear spontaneously Slide 17 BA Groups: The Individual - Little skill assessment; tasks and social roles of individuals defined by the group (this leads to a de-skilling of members) - Individuals exist solely for the group - Leaving can be dreadful - Consolation comes from the undoubting nature of rightness of the group Slide 18 BA Groups: Observable Behaviors - Long silence in which something is expected from a leader or other group member - Hypothesis offered by one member and contradicted or shot down by another - Search for something believed to be hidden and waiting to be discovered - Members seeking approval of leader or alliances with other members Slide 19 BA Groups: More Observable Behaviors - Strong feelings of love, hate, comradeship - Projection of strong feelings, beliefs or behaviors on other group members - Scapegoating - Member expelled or voluntary leaving of group Slide 20 BA Groups are: - Full of energy - Very cohesive - Its structure aids this cohesiveness to continue Examples of BA Groups are: a) Dependency: ______ b) Fight/Flight: ______ c) Pairing: ______ d) Oneness: ______ Slide 21 Only a SWG can constructively use the elements of BA Group behavior. How? - by recognizing that the BA state is always present in a group & functions as a defense against anxiety, individual group members identify and make explicit the groups BA to guard against BA group behaviour - group performance depends on each members awareness of his/her BA preference and a willingness to direct energy toward maintaining a SWG stance Slide 22 A SWG is Sophisticated by: a) the way it uses leadership b) the way it protects the skills of the group c) its use of predictions d) the way it makes use of (that is, mobilizes) the relevant BA Group(s) for the implementation of their Primary Task Slide 23 How This Applies to a Network Be aware of your groups BA preference Groups need to be willing to direct energy toward maintaining a Network thats a SWG Need to identify the Primary Task of/for the Network Predict what model is going to work (PT and Structure are linked) Mobilize the relevant BA Group(s) for the implementation of the Primary Task Slide 24 Leadership: The Individual & The Group Presentation References: Pierre M. Turquet, "Leadership: The Individual and the Group," Analysis of Groups, Coleman and Geller, Ed., San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1974, pp.349-371 Group Development Theory, Wilfred Ruprecht Bion, http://www.odnetwork.org/conf2004/followup/103PREB. pdf Slide 25 Leadership: The Individual & The Group Presented by Phillip Penna, MA Coordinator Ontario Environment Network http://www.oen.ca - email@example.com tel: 705-840-2888 fax: 705-840-5862