Leadership Styles

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  • Leadership StylesGovernments around the world

  • Totalitarianismabsolute control by a political party - often communist, socialist or fascist ideologyall economic activity is controlled by the partyTotalitarian governments are often led by a dictator who has complete power. These countries are often also aggressive and racist.

  • Totalitarianismwhen a goal must be accomplished in a set time periodwhen all citizens agree to policies/goals set by the leader(s)if the leader abides by the same rules as the citizens

    Totalitarian governments are effective:

  • Totalitarianismif citizens do not agree to the rules/policies set by the leaderif the leader does not follow the same rules as the citizensif there is no time limit for a goal

    Totalitarian governments are not effective:

  • TotalitarianismU.S.S.R. 1922 - Joseph Stalin

  • TotalitarianismItaly 1922 - Benito Mussolini

  • TotalitarianismGermany 1933 - Adolf Hitler

  • TotalitarianismSpain 1936 - Francisco Franco

  • TotalitarianismNorth Korea 1948 - Kim Il-sung

  • TotalitarianismChina 1949 - Mao Zedong

  • TotalitarianismCuba 1959 - Fidel Castro

  • Autocracyleader has absolute power, and tells others what to dolimited discussion on ideasleader can be elected into powerdecisions may be made by a monarch (hereditary leadership) or a dictator (non-hereditary leadership)only an absolute monarchy has total control. constitutional monarchies (Great Britain, Canada) do not, and are not considered autocratic

  • AutocracyYes, they can and most often do. Totalitarianism is the presence of total government control, whereas an autocracy indicates the presence of a dictator or a monarch

    Can a Totalitarian Government have an autocratic leader?

  • Autocracywhen time is limited in decision makingindividuals/groups lack skill and knowledgecitizens do not get along or are unable to co-operatecitizens and government staff do not respond to leadership styles

    Autocracies are effective:

  • Autocracywhen developing a strong sense of teamwork is a goalcitizens have some degree of skill or knowledgewhen citizens want their opinion to be heard

    Autocracies are not effective:

  • Autocratic LeadersKing Louis XIV of France reigned for 72 years

  • Autocratic LeadersJoseph Stalin - U.S.S.R. 30 years in power

  • Autocratic LeadersAdolf Hitler - Germany 12 years in power

  • Autocratic LeadersMuammar Gaddafi - Libya 32 years in power

  • Autocratic LeadersBashar al-Assad - Syria in power since 2000

  • Oligarchyan oligarchy is similar to an autocratic government except that power rests in a small group rather than one person

  • Democracydecisions are made by the majoritypower rests in the body of citizens, and the head of government is not a monarchsome democratic countries have a monarch, but still elect a government to make decisions. The monarch has little power. This situation is called a constitutional monarchy.

  • Democracywhen there is a high degree of skill and/or motivation among citizensa sense of teamwork existsroutines are familiar to citizens

    Democratic governments are effective:

  • Democracywhen there is a low degree of skill or knowledge among citizenswhen a low sense of teamwork/interdependence existscitizens expect to be told what to do

    Democratic governments are not effective:

  • DemocracyCanada

  • DemocracyUnited States of America

  • DemocracyJapan

  • DemocracyIndia

  • DemocracyEngland

  • Laissez-Faireno group leader or system of governmenta state of social disorder due to lack of governmentlaissez-faire is also known as anarchy

  • Laissez-Fairewhen time is availablegroup is motivated and/or a sense of team existsmembers of the group have some degree of skill or knowledge

    Laissez-faire is effective:

  • Laissez-Fairehigh degree of conflict is presentgroup is unmotivatedmembers of the group have little skill or knowledge

    Laissez-faire is not effective:

  • Laissez-Fairehigh degree of conflict is presentgroup is unmotivatedmembers of the group have little skill or knowledge

    Laissez-faire is not effective:

  • Laissez-FaireSomalia

  • Theocracyleadership by religion

  • Theocracywhen all citizens possess the same understanding of the religionwhen values/morals/ethics are the same for all citizens

    Theocracy is effective:

  • Theocracywhen religious rules are interpreted differently among citizenswhen values/morals/ethics are different among citizens

    Theocracy is not effective:

  • TheocracyVatican City - Pope Benedict XVI

  • TheocracyIran - Sayyed Ali Khamenei

  • Aristocracydecisions made by those considered to be superior through wealth or educationpeople in charge considered naturally better or high born

  • Aristocracywhen the aristocracy is interested in the welfare well-being of the citizens

    Aristocracy is effective:when the aristocracy becomes self-interested and greedy

    Aristocracy is not effective:

  • French Estates SystemFirst Estate (Clergy)Bishops - 139Monks - 25 000Nuns - 40 000Lower Clergy - 50 000Second Estate(Nobility)350 000Third Estate(Everyone else)24 500 000