Leadership & Management
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UNIT I - LEADERSHIP
AILYN BRILLO PINEDA, RN
a social influence or a persons ability to move other people to act Influence processes involving determination of the groups or organizations objectives Motivating task behavior in pursuit of these objectives, and Influencing group maintenance and culture
LEAD, LOVE, LEARN E ENTHUSIASTIC, ENERGETIC A ASSERTIVE, ACHIEVER D DEDICATED, DESIROUS E EFFICIENT AND EFFECTIVE R RESPONSIBLE, RESPECTFUL
Elements of Leadership VISION INFLUENCE POWER AUTHORITY RESPONSIBILITY ACCOUNTABILITY
direction to the influence
process. For leadership to occur, leaders must communicate the vision the their followers in such a way that the followers adopt the vision as their own It is essential for organizational effectiveness and success
to obtain followers, compliance or request It is a skill that can be developed , and is one of a major components of the power triangle
KINDS OF INFLUENCE ASSERTIVENESS INGRATATION RATIONALITY BLOCKING COALITION SANCTION EXCHANGE UPWARD
Ability to efficiently and effectively exercise authority and control through personal, organizational and social strength Ability to impose the will of one person or group to bring about certain behaviors in other groups or persons
Sources of POWERReward power: based on the inducements in exchange for cooperation Source: ability to grant favor e.g. pay, promotion, recognition, Coercive power: ability to punish Source: fear e.g. withholding pay rises & promotion, withdrawing friendship, formal reprimands, lay
Legitimate power: based on leader's position Source: position Referent power: based on respect, respect attractiveness, reputation, or charisma Source: Association with
Expert power: competence, special knowledge or expertise in a given area. Source: knowledge & skills
Informational Power: based on access to valued data Source: the need for information to accomplish a goal
Connection power: based on links to influential or prestigious persons
the right to expect or secure compliance Authority is backed by legitimacy
FORMS OF AUTHORITY Line
Authority is direct supervisory authority from superior to subordinate. a. Chain of Command b. Unity of Command c. Span of Control
Authority Team Authority
obligation and accountability for all actions done Ability to do assigned task Responsibilities fall into 2 categories: individual and organizational
answering for the result of ones actions or omissions. It is a form of reckoning, where one accepts the consequences of their decisions, good or bad
Formal Leaders Appointed,
elected or designated, deliberately chosen by the administration and given authority to act : head nurse, unit manager, supervisor
Informal Leaders Does
not have the official sanction to direct the activities of others Chosen because of age, seniority, special competence and inviting personality
or Authoritarian or Participative
Leadership Styles Leadership
style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership.
I want both of you to. . .
AUTHORITARIAN(AUTOCRATIC ) style is used when leaders tell their employees This
what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it is when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated. Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing their power. This is not the authoritarian style, rather it is an abusive, unprofessional style called bossing people around. It has no place in a leader's repertoire. The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style.
Autocratic or Authoritarian Leadership Style Leader Style:Decision is made WITHOUT ANY FORM OF CONSULTAION Rely on threats and punishment to influence employees Do NOT TRUST
Characteristics: Concerns with TASK ACCOMPLISHMENT rather than relationships Uses DIRECTIVE behavior Exercises POWER with COERSION
Autocratic or Authoritarian EFFECTIVE when: Leadership Style INEFFECTIVEwhen subordinates: become tense, fearful, or resentful expect to have their opinions heard have low morale, high
Employees do not respond to any other leadership style There is highvolume production There is limited time to make a decision
Let's work together to solve this. . .
PARTICIPATIVE (DEMOCRATIC)This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect. This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. Note that a leader is not expected to know everything -- this is why you employ knowledgeable and skillful employees. Using this style is of mutual benefit -- it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better
Participative/Democr atic Leadership Stylealso known as consultation, empowerment, joint decisionmaking, democratic leadership, Management By Objective (MBO) and power-sharing.
Participative/Democr atic Leadership StyleLeader Characteristics: Concerns with human relations & teamwork Fosters open & twoway communication Recognizes and encourages achievement
Bureaucratic Leadership StyleStyle: Everything is done according to procedure or policyLeader Characteristics: manages by the book Exercises power by exercising fixed rules Tends to relate impersonally to
LAISSEZ FAIRE (DELEGATIVE)
You two take care of the problem while I go
LAISSEZ FAIRE (DELEGATIVE)In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and confidence in the people below you. Do not be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely!
Laissez Faire Leadership StyleA.K.A. hands-off little or no direction followers have all freedom and authority subordinates determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own.
Laissez Faire Leadership StyleEFFECTIVE when EMPLOYEES are: highly skilled, experienced, and educated.INEFFECTIVE when
It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager. Leaders are ungrateful
Nursing Leadership Theories Great
Man Theory Trait Theory Individual Character Theory Behavioral Theories Kurt Lewin, Chris Argyris, Alvin Toffler, Rensis Likert, Robert R. Blake Situational or Contingency Theories Paul Hershey& Kenneth Blanchard, Fred Fiedler, Victor Harold Vroom and Yetton, Robert House
Nursing Leadership Theories Transactional
Leadership Style Transformational Leadership Servant Leadership Robert Greenleaf
GREAT MAN THEORY This
theory assumes that the capacity for leadership is inherent, that great leaders are born not made These theories portray great leaders as heroic, mythic and destined to rise leadership when needed
that are related to leadership effectiveness: Intelligence traits - knowledge,
judgment, decisiveness. Personality traits - adaptability, creativity, integrity, etc. Ability traits ability to enlist cooperation, popularity, prestige, etc.
According to this theory, leaders are gifted with certain qualities that developed and show in their ability to get along with people, persuade them in the course of action, have forceful personalities, posses integrity, and are efficient in their work.
concerned with what leaders to and act than who the leader is Actions of the leaders and not their mental qualities or traits make them leaders great leaders are made not born
BEHAVIORAL THEORIES KURT
LEWIN proposed that workers behavior is influenced by interactions between the personality, the structure of the primary work group, and the socio-technical workplace Leadership styles authoritarian, democratic and laissez- faire Developed Field Theory of Human Behavior
Kurt Lewin He
proposed that change undergoes 3 stages: unfreezing, change occurs, refreezing
Chris Argyris Organizational
psychologist sought to study the way people in the organization act and react with each other He explains the patterns of reasoning that explains ones behavior He developed the concepts: Ladder of Inference and Double Loop Learning
Alvin TofflerHe is a futurist known f