Leadership Behavior and Management Styles

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Leadership Behavior and Management Styles. Leadership vs Management. “There is only one manager, but anyone can be a leader if they act on their good ideas!” Leadership: Influence based to reach a goal Informal designation: independent of management Achieved positions; special skills - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Leadership Behavior and Management Styles

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Leadership vs ManagementThere is only one manager, but anyone can be a leader if they act on their good ideas!

    Leadership:Influence based to reach a goal Informal designation: independent of management Achieved positions; special skillsExamples!

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Leadership vs ManagementManagement:

    Authority based: appointedFormally designatedAssigned positionReplaced if poor manager; good leadership skills help!

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Leadership TheoriesHegel1800sLeaders must serve as followers

    Great Man/TraitEarliest theoriesI was born to lead!Have innate characteristics Not accepted today (Great Man theory

    Trait/attribute-from Great ManPersonal leadership characteristicslooks, walks, talks like a leaderLimitedDoes not consider situationDoes not consider follower

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • Leadership Theories contBehavioral Theories:Aka: Humanist approachEmerged in 1940s & 50sLooked at behaviors leaders engaged inApplied to nursing:Identifies the relationship between the work environment and positive patient outcomes

    *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Leadership TheorySituationalVaries with situationconsiders structure, atmosphere and leaders characteristics

    ContingencyDifferent situation require different leadership types

    Keys to the above theories:Effective leadership style depends upon the situation; what is successful in one situation, may not be effective in the next!Path-goal looks at supervision more than decision makingMinimizes goal obstruction; rewards followers; focuses on goal achievementModel that predicts which leadership style most effective in situations. Based on followers maturity Involves telling, selling, participating and delegating!By Hersey and Blanchard

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Leadership Theory cont.Process theories- as they relate to group interaction

    Transactional/TransformationalMotivates followers to full potentialInfluence perceptionsFoster a sense of direction!What is focus of transformational leader?

    RelationalAccomplish a common goal

    ServantDedicates lives to serving others

    Social ChangeWork toward common goal, improving quality of life for all** shift from task- oriented to a relationship oriented focus

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Women and LeadershipHistorical perspectiveStereotyping-women less competent than menNursing A predominately female-oriented profession Leadership roles encounter challenges

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Leadership and CulturesCulture influences leadershipLegal mandates, affirmative action, civil rights regulations, and social pressure Minorities in leadership roles- improving but still has a ways to go.

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*What leadership qualities do you possess??Use the next slide to consider your own attributes as a leader/manager!

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Leadership Qualities and BehaviorsIntegrityThink criticallyCourageSolve problemsInitiativeRespect person EnergyListenOptimismSkillful CommunicationPerseveranceSet goalsBalanceEnvision futureAbility to handle stress Develop oneselfSelf-awarenessCoach others

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Leadership Styles and Effective Management (Pattern of Behavior)Leadership stylesAuthoritarian (military) Strong control, directiveDownward and task directedDemocraticSubordinates involved in decision-makingLengthy process, communications flow up and downLaissez-Faire or PermissiveLittle or no directionMaximum freedom for individuals-delegating approach*Multicratic- Combines best of allAdapt the leadership style needed for particular situation!!

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Consider: Ann is a nurse manager for a 26 bed ICU. She is people and relationship oriented. Ann promotes and facilitates group discussion and decision making. Teamwork is the focus for any project and she provides the necessary resources. She wants everyone to have a role on the unit and input into decisions.What leadership style is exhibited?

    Is this style effective in all situations?

    What leadership style do you prefer?DemocraticNo, not in situations where immediate action needed.

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Power and Leadership/Management StylesPowerwhat is it??Influence of others through persuasion or coercionNon-static; ever changingPower sources: legitimate (authority)Referent (symbol of leader)Reward (favor granting)Coercive (punishment)Expert (special knowledge) Nurisng!!!

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Power and Leadership/Management StylesPoweranswer these questions!The nurse who can accurately interpret an ECG has ____ power.The nurse manager who can write a letter of commendation about your performance in the unit newsletter has ____ power.Your nurse manager has authority to grant you a salary increase; this manager has ______ power.

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Power and Leadership/Management StylesPowerThe nurse who can accurately interpret an ECG has EXPERT power.The nurse manager who can write a letter of commendation about your performance in the unit newsletter has REWARD power.Your nurse manager has authority to grant you a salary increase; this manager has LEGITIMATE power. (reward)

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Give an example in which coercive power (punishment) might be appropriately used in the nursing profession.Refer to texta nurse who is abusing drugs faces loss of license, job, salarypatient safety is priority!Referent powerhow might referent power influence your career as a nurse? Textan exampleas a nurse you carefully follow directions of your assigned department headthat individual possess symbol of power!

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Power and Leadership/Management StylesEmpowerment Share power with others; enables them to act; transformational leadershipDelegates much authority for decision- makingEncourages others to excel!

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Three Factors of EmpowermentDirection: sufficient instructions to give confidenceChallenge: an element of stretch that will bring out creativity and satisfaction on completion Autonomy/support: confidence that there is further help and direction available if needed

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Reasons to EmpowerWork output increases Nursing: better care for more patientsPlaces decision making in the hands of those individuals closest to the situation Nursing: decisions tend to be safer and better fitted to the needs of a particular patient or patient care situationA more enthusiastic, satisfied, and healthy group of workers Nursing: reducing employee turnover

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*QuestionA unit with what type of leadership enables empowerment of staff?A. Situational leadershipB. Great man leadershipC. Transformational leadershipD. Trait leadership

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*AnswerC. Transformational leadershipRationale: many hospital units operate in some type of transformational leadership that involves individuals other than the manager in decision making and supports democratic leadership.

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*The Reciprocal RoleTwo parties to any leadership situation We all begin our careers in a follower-type position Role of the follower Being a good follower

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*The Effective Follower!What is the effective follower?Perceives the relationship between institutional goals and personal goalsViews leader as working toward bothNeed to be both a leader and a follower (interchangeable!)

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Qualities of a Good Follower! (Important as a GN)Know these characteristics!Invest self in the organization and its goalsKnow your responsibilities as a followerJob descriptionReport to whom?Evaluated by whom?Identify your expectations of the leader.Support your leader and the groupStimulate leader and the group!Follow channels of communication

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Developing Your Leadership Role and Skills!Evaluate your own leadership qualities!(Leadership exercises)

    StrengthsWeaknesses

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Developing Your Leadership Role and Skills!Evaluate your own leadership qualities!Ways to enhance your own personal power:Increase Knowledge and competenceFlexibilitySelf-confidence, decisiveness and integrityWalk, talk, and look poised and confidentAlliancesDevelop personal physical resources- healthy living

    Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC

  • *Carolyn Jacobs, RN, MSN, ONC*Assessing Your Own Effectiveness as a LeaderSelf-assessment Environmental assessmentIdentifying