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  • Le tourisme culturel : Une tude de la communication touristique de Marseille-Provence et Aarhus devenant

    capitales europennes de la culture

    Christine Guldbrandsen 2012

    1 de 54

    Le tourisme culturel

    Une tude de la communication touristique de Marseille-Provence et Aarhus devenant

    capitales europennes de la culture

    Auteur : Christine Guldbrandsen

    Matire : Franais et communication Aarhus University, Business and Social Sciences 2012

    Directeur de mmoire :Patrick Leroyer Nombre de caractres (sans espaces) : 54 534

  • Le tourisme culturel : Une tude de la communication touristique de Marseille-Provence et Aarhus devenant

    capitales europennes de la culture

    Christine Guldbrandsen 2012

    2 de 54

    Abstract

    This paper examines the area of cultural tourism in the context of Marseille-Provence et Aarhus becoming

    European capitals of culture in 2013 and 2017. The method behind this paper is hermeneutic because of its

    qualitative approach to the two cases involved. Its goal is to investigate how two cities communicate as

    cities of culture and what it tells us about the understanding of culture today. Because of its qualitative

    analysis, the paper will not come to a final answer of how to communicate culture to tourists but sets to

    see how two cities manage to use communication in a tourist perspective. The analysis is based on relevant

    texts from the web pages and candidate brochures of Marseille and Aarhus becoming European capitals of

    culture.

    In the second chapter after the introduction in chapter one, a treatment of different theories and notions

    within the area of tourism and culture is made to structure the paper and put the cases into context.

    Especially the notions decentreting and recentrering from Srensen et al. 2007 within a perspective of

    cultural tourism are essential and establish a base of the analysis of Aarhus and Marseille.

    In the third chapter, the analysis of the four cases is made. From the study of the web page and the

    brochure of Marseille, it is concluded that Marseille defines itself as a Mediterranean city, avoids taking a

    dominant French aspect into its communication and therefore in defining its identity. Also, the city is

    focused on a new artistic dimension of the city within culture and will dynamically take a lead on a new and

    more cultural future Europe. Next, an analysis of the web page and brochure of Aarhus is made. What is to

    be concluded is that Aarhus feels to be having a lot of intercultural potential as city of culture and wishes to

    (metaphorical) be more visible on an European map than now. Within the values that Aarhus has in its

    communication, it is to be noticed that Aarhus brands itself on being very innovative and international at

    the same time as being a Danish metropolis. The city has a very explicit focus on the interaction between

    tourists and locals which concludes that Aarhus is intentionally focused on this recentralizing of their

    culture that prevents a mass culture to take over and make the culture within tourism superficial. At the

    end of this chapter, a comparison of the two cities is made followed by a more perspectival view of the

    effect of the title as European capital of culture. It is here also concluded that Aarhus and Marseille have

    rather different identities in this context but as for the values they resemble a lot, both focusing on the

    innovative and dynamic part of being a cultural city and as for the focus on diversity in culture where

    everyone should participate.

    Chapter four of this paper draws the conclusion that Aarhus and Marseille both communicate to a large

    market segment in Europe, understood as all Europeans, from an innovative, cultural perspective and that

  • Le tourisme culturel : Une tude de la communication touristique de Marseille-Provence et Aarhus devenant

    capitales europennes de la culture

    Christine Guldbrandsen 2012

    3 de 54

    the whole project of European Capitals of Cultures is established to focus on smaller European cities not as

    dominated by tourists and mass tourism and to spread the knowledge of those cultures in a perspective of

    great diversity.

    Number of characters in abstract (without spaces) : 2,671

  • Le tourisme culturel : Une tude de la communication touristique de Marseille-Provence et Aarhus devenant

    capitales europennes de la culture

    Christine Guldbrandsen 2012

    4 de 54

    Table des matires 1. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................... 5

    1.1 Motivation ............................................................................................................................................... 5

    1.2 Formulation de problme ........................................................................................................................ 6

    1.3 Mthode et structure .............................................................................................................................. 7

    1.4 Dlimitation ............................................................................................................................................. 8

    2. Thorie ........................................................................................................................................................... 9

    2.1 Anders Srensen et al. 2007 : Grundbog i turisme ................................................................................. 9

    2.2 Culture, tourisme et tourisme culturel .................................................................................................. 10

    2.2.1 Culture ............................................................................................................................................ 10

    2.2.2 Tourisme ......................................................................................................................................... 11

    2.2.3 Tourisme culturel ............................................................................................................................ 11

    2.3 Modle IMK ........................................................................................................................................... 13

    2.4 Identit et image ................................................................................................................................... 15

    2.5 Capitale Europenne de la Culture (CEC) .............................................................................................. 16

    3. Analyse......................................................................................................................................................... 19

    3.1 Marseille ................................................................................................................................................ 19

    3.1.1 Brochure ......................................................................................................................................... 19

    3.1.2 Site web .......................................................................................................................................... 21

    3.1.3 Conclusion partielle ........................................................................................................................ 23

    3.2 Aarhus .................................................................................................................................................... 23

    3.2.1 Brochure ......................................................................................................................................... 23

    3.2.2 Site web .......................................................................................................................................... 26

    3.2.3 Conclusion partielle ........................................................................................................................ 28

    3.3 Face--face Marseille-Aarhus ................................................................................................................ 28

    4. Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................... 31

    5. Rfrences ................................................................................................................................................... 32

    5.1 Matriaux imprims .............................................................................................................................. 32

    5.2 Matriaux Internet ................................................................................................................................ 32

    6. Liste d'annexes ............................................................................................................................................ 34

    7. Annexes ....................................................................................................................................................... 36

  • Le tourisme culturel : Une tude de la communication touristique de Marseille-Provence et Aarhus devenant

    capitales europennes de la culture

    Christine Guldbrandsen 2012

    5 de 54

    1. Introduction

    1.1 Motivation

    Bien que le domai