Law Enforcement: Uniformed Patrol Concepts and Tactics

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A PowerPoint presentation on uniformed patrol concepts and tactics for law enforcement officials.

Transcript of Law Enforcement: Uniformed Patrol Concepts and Tactics

  • 1. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Law EnforcementLaw Enforcement Uniformed Patrol Concepts andUniformed Patrol Concepts and TacticsTactics

2. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Traditional MethodsTraditional Methods There are three traditional methods ofThere are three traditional methods of uniformed patrol:uniformed patrol: Random Routine PatrolRandom Routine Patrol Rapid Response to Citizens 911 CallsRapid Response to Citizens 911 Calls Retroactive Investigation of Past Crimes byRetroactive Investigation of Past Crimes by DetectivesDetectives 3. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Random Patrol The police officer drives around a designated geographic area. 4. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Rapid Response to Citizens 911 calls The police officer receives a call from the police dispatcher, then responds to the call. Photograph provided by Gary Allen, 9-1-1 Dispatch Monthly 5. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Retroactive Investigation of Past Crimes by Detectives If the call involves a crime, the police officer conducts a preliminary investigation and often refers the case to a detective who then conducts a follow up investigation of the crime 6. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Kansas City StudyKansas City Study First attempt toFirst attempt to actually test theactually test the effectivenesseffectiveness ofof random routinerandom routine patrol.patrol. Photograph provided by Woodcrest Vehicles, Riverside, CA 7. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Random Routine PatrolRandom Routine Patrol Assumptions:Assumptions: Creates anCreates an omnipresenceomnipresence Deters CrimeDeters Crime Enables policeEnables police officers to catchofficers to catch criminals in thecriminals in the actact also known as preventivealso known as preventive patrol, involves a policepatrol, involves a police officer driving within aofficer driving within a community when they arecommunity when they are not on an assignment fromnot on an assignment from the radio dispatcher orthe radio dispatcher or supervisorsupervisor 8. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Kansas City StudyKansas City Study During 1972-73, Kansas City DepartmentDuring 1972-73, Kansas City Department conducted an experiment to test the effects ofconducted an experiment to test the effects of routine preventive control. This year longroutine preventive control. This year long experiment has been both influential andexperiment has been both influential and controversial.controversial. 9. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Kansas City StudyKansas City Study Fifteen patrol beats in Kansas Citys SouthFifteen patrol beats in Kansas Citys South Patrol were used.Patrol were used. Five of those beats were assigned to aFive of those beats were assigned to a controlcontrol groupgroup with no changes in normal patrol staffingwith no changes in normal patrol staffing or tactics.or tactics. Five other beats were chose as reactive beats,Five other beats were chose as reactive beats, and all preventive patrolling was eliminated.and all preventive patrolling was eliminated. TheThe reactive beatsreactive beats and theand the proactive beatsproactive beats were allwere all experimental groups.experimental groups. 10. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Kansas City StudyKansas City Study Outside patrol units handled calls in the reactive beats,Outside patrol units handled calls in the reactive beats, and units left the beats once they had handled the calls.and units left the beats once they had handled the calls. During the experiment all activities during the 15 beatsDuring the experiment all activities during the 15 beats was monitored.was monitored. Prior to the outset of the experiments researchersPrior to the outset of the experiments researchers collected data on reported crime, arrests, trafficcollected data on reported crime, arrests, traffic accidents, response times citizen. Attitudes, citizen andaccidents, response times citizen. Attitudes, citizen and business victimization for each of the 15 beats.business victimization for each of the 15 beats. No one in the community was advised during the entireNo one in the community was advised during the entire year of the experimentyear of the experiment 11. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Kansas City StudyKansas City Study Conclusions:Conclusions: adding or subtracting police patrols from an areaadding or subtracting police patrols from an area mademade NONO difference in the community.difference in the community. No change in crime.No change in crime. No change in citizen fear of crime.No change in citizen fear of crime. No change in community attitude toward police.No change in community attitude toward police. No change in police response time.No change in police response time. No change in traffic accidents.No change in traffic accidents. 12. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Kansas City StudyKansas City Study It had been commonly believed that puttingIt had been commonly believed that putting more officers on patrol would cause a decreasemore officers on patrol would cause a decrease in crime, and taking away police would cause anin crime, and taking away police would cause an increase in crime. The Kansas City Studyincrease in crime. The Kansas City Study demonstrated this was wrong.demonstrated this was wrong. 13. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Kansas City StudyKansas City Study James Q. Wilson: All it shows is that changesJames Q. Wilson: All it shows is that changes in the amount of random preventive patrol inin the amount of random preventive patrol in marked cars does not, by itself, seem to affectmarked cars does not, by itself, seem to affect how much crime occurs or how safe peoplehow much crime occurs or how safe people feel.feel. Joseph D. McNamara: the experimentJoseph D. McNamara: the experiment seemed to show that police officersseemed to show that police officers uncommitted time-(responding to calls or self-uncommitted time-(responding to calls or self- initiated police time) which is approximatelyinitiated police time) which is approximately 50%, could be used more effectively.50%, could be used more effectively. 14. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster O.W. Wilson, Despite the conclusionsO.W. Wilson, Despite the conclusions of researchers, the valuable police patrolof researchers, the valuable police patrol cannot be measured by a statistical studycannot be measured by a statistical study like the Kansas City one and must be basedlike the Kansas City one and must be based on historical experience.on historical experience. To date, only one other attempt has beTo date, only one other attempt has be made to replicate the Kansas City Study, inmade to replicate the Kansas City Study, in Albuquerque, New Mexico- which yieldedAlbuquerque, New Mexico- which yielded similar results.similar results. 15. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Alternative Patrol StrategiesAlternative Patrol Strategies Directed PatrolDirected Patrol Split ForceSplit Force High intensity patrolHigh intensity patrol Differential Response to Calls for ServiceDifferential Response to Calls for Service Uniformed tactical operationsUniformed tactical operations Decoy operationsDecoy operations Stake out and sting operationsStake out and sting operations Code enforcement teamsCode enforcement teams 16. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Directed PatrolDirected Patrol involves officersinvolves officers receiving specificreceiving specific instructions on whatinstructions on what duties to performduties to perform while not respondingwhile not responding to calls.to calls. Based on:Based on: crime analysiscrime analysis specific problemsspecific problems complaints receivedcomplaints received from the communityfrom the community 17. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Split ForceSplit Force One portion of theOne portion of the patrol force handling allpatrol force handling all calls dispatched tocalls dispatched to patrol units, while thepatrol units, while the other only performsother only performs directed patroldirected patrol assignments.assignments. 18. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster High intensity patrolHigh intensity patrol A form of split force used by the HoustonA form of split force used by the Houston Police Department, placed more officersPolice Department, placed more officers in different parts of the city during peakin different parts of the city during peak crime hours.crime hours. Problems HIP- directed not to answer 911 calls and stay inProblems HIP- directed not to answer 911 calls and stay in designated areas, not enough regular patrol officers, therefore 911designated areas, not enough regular patrol officers, therefore 911 calls would pile up.calls would pile up. 19. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Differential Response to Calls forDifferential Response to Calls for ServiceService An alternative to rapidAn alternative to rapid response to calls forresponse to calls for service whichservice which matches the responsematches the response to calls to 911 to theto calls to 911 to the severity of theseverity of the request.request. 20. Copyright 2005-2009:Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster Uniformed tactical operationsUniformed tactical operations Aggressive Patrol Tactics InvolvesAggressive Patrol Tactics Involves stoppingstopping numerous p