LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES

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An overview about some of the countries in Latin America (Cuba, El Salvador and Belize)

Transcript of LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES

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CUBAgeography

GEOGRAPHYCuba is located in the Caribbean Sea.Cubas capital city is HavannaTo the north of Cuba lies the United States (150km away) and the Bahamas, Mexico is to the west, the Cayman Islands and Jamaica are to the south, and Haiti and the Dominican Republic are the southeast.

NATIONAL FLAG

PEOPLE

Population : 11 million

60% Spanish descent, 20% mixed race, 11% African Descent, 1% Chinese

Language : Spanish

Religion: 1. Catholicism 60%2. Protestantism and other Christians (5%)3. Other/African Religious (11%)4. Non-religious (24%)

GOVERNMENT

Communist and Republic countryCuba's Legislature has 609 seats, and the last legislative elections were in 2012.Current leader is Chief Executive Raul Modesto Castro. The chief executive in Cuba typically has a term length of 5 years.

ECONOMY

GDP: $77.15 billionMAJOR INDUSTIRESSugarPetroleumTobaccoNickelAgricultural Machinery

AGRICULTURE

Sugar Tobacco Citrus Rice Cassava

TOURISM

International tourism - number of arrivals in CubaTOURIST-FRIENDLY CITESHavanaBaracoaPinar del Rio Province

Santiago de CubaTrinidad

HISTORY3500 BC, first inhabitants land on Cuba1492 AD, Columbus sights Cuba1514, Spain conquers Cuba1868, First war of independence launched1878, rebels granted amnesty1898, Spanish-American war, Cuba loses, governed by US1933, President Gerado Machado y Morales overthrown my Fulgencio BatistaHISTORY1959, Batista Overthrown by guerilla movement led by Fidel Castro and Che GuevaraCastro becomes Prime Minister of CubaCastro turns to Soviet Union, Cuba becomes Communist state1961, Batista Supporters invade Bay of Pigs1962, Cuban Missile Crisis

CUBAN REVOLUTION

1950s Cuba is ruled by an unpopular dictator, Fulgencio Batista Batista in power due to support from US Govt. & American businesses. 1953: A young lawyer named Fidel Castro plans to overthrow Batista July 26, 1953: Castro's poorly equipped army tries to storm Moncada army barracks but fails. Castro is sent to prison.

Due to US pressure, Batista frees all political prisoners in 1955 Fidel& his brother Raul head to Mexico to recruit an army

In Mexico city, Fidel meets an Argentine doctor named Che Guevara who joins Fidel's army1956: Fidel's army arrives in Cuba but is losing & must flee to Sierra Maestra Mountains. Using radio broadcasts, Cubans begin to support Fidel's cause1958: Castro's army leaves Sierra, restarts Revolution. Peasants join Castro's army, with support of the people Castro wins, Batista flees1959: Castro begins programs like universal education & health care.Castro begins seizing foreign owned land & nationalizing businesses. Elections put on hold, supporters of Batista are jailed, exiled or executed.

Bay of Pigs Invasion

Eisenhower is outraged, begins a boycott of the islandRaul Castro suggests an alliance with the Soviet Union1960-61 CIA trains Cuban exiles to invade Cuba & overthrow CastroBay of Pigs invasions fails, President Kennedy won't use US military to help.

Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

Cuba asks Soviets for defensive helpSoviets offer nuclear missiles in Cuba US spy planes photograph sitesJFK demands all missles be removed. US begins to blockade CubaHowever, JFK and Khrushchev cut a deal to avoid a nuclear war.

El salvadorRepublica de El SalvadorNATIONAL FLAG

location21,041 sq km on the Pacific Coast of Central America.

demographyPeople are called SALVADORANS with only 6M of population

Most people speaks Turkish but their official language is Spanish.

Christians

governmentSAN SALVADOR

Type Of Government: REPUBLIC President: Salvador Snchez Cern (2014)

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economyTheir economy has been traditionally AgricultureEl Salvadors economy was affected by the 12 year civil warThey recovered their economic life by the beginning of 2001 Based on AgricultureCORN, COFFEE AND SUGARBased on IndustriesFood and Beverage processing, chemicals, petroleumBackground historyPipil Indians migrated to this region in the 11th century.Pedro de Alvarado, a lieutenant of Corts's, conquered El Salvador (1525)Sept. 15, 1821 federation of Central American states until that union dissolved in 1838. From 1931 to 1979 El Salvador was ruled by a series of military dictatorships.

Background historyEl Salvador invaded HONDURAS (1969)Known as the football war

References:http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/world/el-salvador-economy.htmlhttp://www.operationworld.org/country/elsa/owtext.htmlhttp://www.infoplease.com/country/el-salvador.html?pageno=2

belizeNATIONAL FLAG

NATIONAL FLAGBLUE AND WHITE represents the Peoples Union PartyRED represents the United Democratic Party TWO GUYS represents the major demographical ethnicity of Belize50 LEAVES symbolizes year 1950 which PUP was establishedSUB UMBRA FLORE under the shade I flourish31LOCATIONBelize is a nation on the eastern coast of Central America, with Caribbean Sea shorelines to the east and dense jungle to the westThe gateway between The Carribean and the Central American RegionIts west border not straightgeography

LOCATIONHome to over 900 Mayan sitesTallest Building: Caracole Mayan RuinsCapital City: BelmopanIt is also one of the only three non-island nation to be part of CARICOMPHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY60% of its lands are undisturbed due to low population20% of land is covered in cultivated landIt has the second largest barrier reefFamous for the Big Blue HoleMaya Mountains is home for several mayan ruinsIt was also a very famous spot for many archeologists35demographyBelize is small but incredibly mixedPOPULATION: 340,000 50% Mestizo25% Creole/Afro Belizean12% Mayan6% Garinagu

4% Indian4% Caucasian (Russian Mennonites)36demographySouth GarifunasNear the Coast Creoles North MayanInland - Mennonites37demographyOFFICIAL LANGUAGE: ENGLISHSECONDARY LANGUAGE: SPANISH

BELIZIAN CREOLE is a heavily carribean influenced accent of the English language38government20th CENTURY Belize gained its self governing autonomous status1981 Belize gained its full independence but remained as a commonwealth country of the UKTYPE OF GOVERNMENT: PARLIAMENTARY CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY39Tourist spotsTHE GREAT BLUE HOLE

The most popular dive destination in Belize, the Great Blue Hole offers divers interesting observations of limestone formations that mold its walls. This massive sinkhole under the water is near the Lighthouse Reef and creates a perfect circle of deep blue water. The deeper one dives into the Great Blue Hole, the clearer the water and the more breathtaking the scenery, as the array of bizarre stalactites and limestone formations become more complex and intense.40Tourist spotsTHE CAYE CAULKERCaye Caulker is a small coral island in the Caribbean Sea and is accessible by high-speed water taxi or small plane. In recent years the island has become a popular Belize attraction for backpackers and other tourists for its (relatively) cheap prices, laid-back vibe, and abundance of restaurants and bars. The main mode of transport on Caye Caulker is simply walking. The paths are well defined, and crossing the island takes about 20 minutes. Bicycles and golf carts can also be rented.

41Tourist spotsTHE PLACENCIAA popular peninsula in southern Belize, Placencia has the best mainland beaches, plus some of the most amazing offshore coral cayes. The eastern side of the Placencia Peninsula is a long expanse of white sand beach. The western side is bounded by a long and narrow bay. The beautiful beaches together with the abundant, inexpensive accommodation, make it a great place to relax and one of the attractions in Belize.

42HISTORY-Belize was originally settled by the Mayan civilization. They began moving into Belize in 1500 BC. There are several Mayan sites in Belize including Altun Ha, Xunantunich, and Caracol. Quite a few people lived in Belize at the time.-Christopher Columbus was the first European to visit Belize in 1502. Later shipwrecked sailors started the first settlement in Belize. It was many years laterin 1840 that Belize became a British Colony. It was called the Colony of British Honduras.-In 1973, the territory was renamed to Belize. On September 21, 1981 it gained independence.43