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- 2. Activity Modeling and Service Innovation Larry Constantine IDSA Director, Lab:USE, University of Madeira Laboratory for Constantine & Usage-centered Lockwood, Ltd. UNIVERSIDADE da MADEIRA Software Engineering
- 3. UNIVERSIDADE da MADEIRA Innovation in Context Engagement with products and services always takes place in a larger context of human activity. other people varied artifacts other activities Innovation is easy. Effective innovation depends on insight into the activity context. Service engineering needs to model what people are really doing. 1 2008, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd.
- 4. UNIVERSIDADE da MADEIRA The Business Process Perspective Business processes Set of interconnected activities transforming information or artifacts into more valuable forms. Performed by human actors and/or systems. Decomposable into elementary business processes: one person at one time adding significant value and resulting in a consistent state. Series of steps to produce a product or service ordered in time and space structured, bounded embodying business logic defined inputs and outputs Various notations, but primarily process decomposition in now L process flow UM 2 2008, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd.
- 5. UNIVERSIDADE da MADEIRA An Activity Perspective Human activity loosely ordered collections of actions having distinct but disparate goals contributing to a shared or common purpose So, what do you think So, what do you think performed by human actors of activity theory? of activity theory? mediated by artifacts flexible, adaptive, changeable shaped by and highly dependent on context and changing conditions operationalized through practice organized by established and emergent social, cultural, and personal rules and guidelines as well as formally defined ones 3 2008, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd.
- 6. UNIVERSIDADE da MADEIRA Activity Theory Condensed Created by early 20th century Russian psychologists Rubinshtein, Leontiev, and Vygotsky. More recently popularized by Bonnie Nardi and others.* Not so much a theory as a conceptual framework. Some prior attempts to systematize and operationalize.** Hierarchical structure of activity (three levels of analysis): activities are motivated, purposive, and consist of actions directed toward a distinct, specific conscious goal, comprising ACTIVITY PURPOSE operationsways of executing ACTION GOAL actions, either deliberately or reflexively, adapted to conditions OPERATION CONDITIONS * Nardi (ed.) Context and Consciousness. 1996. Somewhat Gay & Hembrooke. Activity-Centered Design. 2004. complicated and Nardi & Kaptelinin, Acting with Technology. 2006. a little vague! ** Duignan, Noble, & Biddle, 2006 Kaptalinin, Nardi, & Macaulay, 1999 4 2008, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd.
- 7. UNIVERSIDADE da MADEIRA Activity Theory Condensed Human activity* is performed by actors (subjects) motivated by purposes (objects) and mediated by tools (artifacts) in a transformational process yielding a result (outcome) constrained by rules and differentiated responsibilities or roles within a community. TOOL TRANSFORMATIONAL SUBJECT OBJECT PROCESS OUTCOME RULES COMMUNITY ROLES All human activity is mediated by tools. Supporting activity requires designing effective tools. Designing effective tools requires insight into activity. * after Engestrm, 1999 5 2008, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd.
- 8. UNIVERSIDADE da MADEIRA Project Archeology Resource 8 design projects over 13 years, including two very large (50 and 1000+ developer-years) Investigation digging into relevance and effect of activity context from recall, review of design artifacts - evident impact on interaction design potential improvement if better understood evidence of ad hoc modeling Notation and notions revised through two rounds of feedback from colleagues. Most needed modeling: composition/aggregation of tasks (use cases) into activities templates of salient aspects of activities simple pictures of activity context. 6 2008, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd.
- 9. UNIVERSIDADE da MADEIRA Activity Map A diagram showing how focal activities (engaging with service or product) and other activities (connected and unconnected) are related. On-line travel booking service. participating in overseas conference/meeting includes includes includes making travel getting arrangements precedes reimbursed last-minute precedes traveling (in precedes participating preparing transit) (after arrival) Always more complicated than it seems! Consider 7 2008, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd.
- 10. UNIVERSIDADE da MADEIRA Participation Map Diagram showing how actors engaged with product or service and other participants are involved with each other and with artifacts within activities. making travel arrangements meeting itinerary ticket/ plan e-ticket CC network invoice travel travel arranger site reimburser repayment booking system calendar getting other reimbursed parties budget Consider proximal activities 8 2008, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd.
- 11. UNIVERSIDADE da MADEIRA Activity Profile making travel A template-based description of aspects of arrangements an activity salient for service or product design. Purpose set up convenient, affordable travel in reasonable amount of time Place and Time typically office, may be last minute, usually some time pressure Participation some experience likely, more if not traveler; artifacts include calendar, budget, tickets, payment, meeting/conference agenda, other sites, Performance complicated, unpredictable, multidimensional process, multiple input parameters and constraints; exploring alternative schedule, carriers, routes; easy to make mistakes, costly, hard to find 9 2008, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd.
- 12. UNIVERSIDADE da MADEIRA Performance Map A diagram (or matrix) showing the tasks involved in an activity. Tasks (use cases) may also be detailed Operationally in essential form. providing telephone technical support includes question independent collaborative answering problem solving precedes problem solving quick/memory answer conferencing w/associate finding problem in KB getting answer from FAQs sending/reading IM/email passing situation/record greeting customer escalating problem giving solution/answer getting customer details learning/clarifying problem 1. |get caller identifying getting next queued call information| logging call/issue/resolution 2. give caller identifying 3. offer customers with information confirming information getting customer details 4. |confirm ID with caller| 5. select customer 6. offer details, history of 10 selected customer 2008, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd.
- 13. UNIVERSIDADE da MADEIRA Process Modeling or Activity Modeling Business process modeling promotes systems and processes in charge process embedded in systems, executable, simulated lock-step performance dumbing down human activity complicating the system Activity modeling promotes humans in control flexible performance thoughtful system/service boundaries people do what people do best systems do what systems do best 11 2008, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd.
- 14. UNIVERSIDADE da MADEIRA Human Activity Modeling in Sum Activities provide larger context within which systems and services are engaged with and experienced. Human Activity Modeling anchors experience design and service engineering with use case modeling in firm foundations of established activity theory. Systematic, integrated definitions and notation enable concise, precise models of complete context. Common notation and vocabulary link service design and system/software design. Fuller consideration of larger activity context highlights opportunities for service innovation and guides service engineering. 12 2008, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd.
- 15. UNIVERSIDADE da MADEIRA Selected Resources Constantine, L. L. (2004) Beyond User-Centered Design and User Experience. Cutter IT Journal, 17, 2: 2-11; also at foruse.com Constantine, L. L. (2008) Human Activity Modeling In Seffah, A., Vanderdonckt, J. and Desmarais, M. (Eds.) Human-Centered Software Engineering. Vol. II. Springer-Verlag; also at foruse.com Duignan, M., Noble, J., & Biddle, R. (2006) Activity theory for design. Proceedings, HWID 2006. University of Madeira. Engestrm, Y., Miettinen, R. & Punamki, R-L. (Eds.) (1999). Perspectives on Activity Theory. Cambridge University Press. Gay, G. & Hembrooke, H. Activity-Centered Design. (2004) MIT Press. Kaptalinin, V., Nardi, B. A., & Macaulay, C. (1999) The Activity Checklist. Interactions 6, 4: 27-39 Nardi, B. (ed.) (1996) Context and Consciousness. MIT Press. Nardi, B., and Kaptelinin, V. (2006) Acting with Technology: Activity Theory and Interaction Design. MIT Press. Norman, D. (2005) Human-Centered Design Considered Harmful. Interactions,12, 4: 14-19; also at jnd.com 13 2008, Constantine & Lockwood, Ltd.