Land pollution

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Transcript of Land pollution

  • 1. A DYING EARTH -Land & Soil pollution

2. WHAT IS LAND POLLUTION ? Land pollution may be understood as the deterioration of the earths land surfaces, often directly or indirectly as a result of mans activities 3. CAUSES 4. DEGENERATIVE ACTIONS Include a lot of human actions, like deforestation, overuse of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, desertification, mining, inefficient and / or inadequate waste treatment, landfill, litter, etc. Many of these are unavoidable; however, definitely the severity of these actions in terms of the effects they have on the land can be reduced by taking appropriate and adequate corrective measures. 5. INEFFICIENT USE OF LAND Inefficient use of land as such is not going to cause land pollution. However, inefficient use of land amounts to wastage, and hence shortage of land; and it is precisely during such conditions that man has to resort to measure such as deforestation and others to meet his needs. It is an indirect cause of land pollution that is often largely neglected. 6. SOIL POLLUTION When the top-most 'soil' layer of land is destroyed or polluted. Soil pollution is again another cause of land pollution that affects not only the land, but also a lot of other things such as forest cover of a region, productivity of land in terms of agriculture, grazing etc. Soil pollution is also caused by wrong agricultural practices, such as overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. 7. LAND CONVERSION When a piece of land is converted from its indigenous form to a form used for either agriculture or infrastructure. Land conversion is especially a growing problem that we possibly do not have a good solution for. Using a piece of land to its maximum potential is the key to eliminate many of the causes of land pollution, such as this one. 8. OVERCROWDED LANDFILLS Household waste, commercial waste is collected and sent to the local recycling unit. Items that cannot be recycled become a part of the landfills that hampers the beauty of the city and cause land pollution. Garbage, rubbish and trash from part of the landfills. 9. SEWAGE TREATMENTLarge amount of solid waste is leftover once the sewage has been treated, biomass sludge, and settled solids. The leftover material is sent to landfil site which end up in polluting the land. 10. OTHER key causes of land pollution include urbanization, improper waste disposal, industrial activities, nuclear research, chemicals released by all sorts of heavy industries, coal-fired power plants, metals production industries, etc. 11. EFFECTS 12. EFFECTS ON CLIMATE Land pollutions leads to loss in the forest cover of Earth. This is in turn going to affect the amount of rain. Less rain mean lesser vegetation. The effect of all different kinds of pollution will eventually lead to problems like acid rains, greenhouse effect, global warming. 13. EXTINCTION OF SPECIES Species are pushed towards endangerment and extinction primarily by two processes. Habitat fragmentation is the fragmentation of the natural habitat of an organism; cause primarily by urban sprawl. Habitat destruction, on the other hand, is when land clearing adversely affects animals special such that their natural habitat is lost. Both the actions can cause some species to go extinct and others to become invasive. 14. BIO MAGNIFICATION Process in which certain non-biodegradable substances go on accumulating in the food-chain. The most common example is of methyl mercury in fish and mercury in eagles. Not only does bio magnification put the particular species at risk, it puts all the species above and below it at risk, and ultimately affects the food pyramid. 15. EFFECTS ON BIODIVERSITY Species extinction and bio magnification is going to overthrow the balance of nature very significantly. The main reason for this is disturbance created in the food chain. To give you a very simple example - on account of bio magnification of mercury in eagles, they might go extinct in the subsequent years. However, we know eagles prey on snakes. Less (or no) eagles will then result in more number of snakes! 16. PREVENTIVE MEASURES 17. REDUCE TOXIC MATERIALS Waste materials that are disposed of should have minimal toxic materials. This can be done by treating the waste materials with various chemicals to make them less toxic. Once the waste is treated, it can be disposed of using responsible methods. Harmful chemicals can also be replaced with less toxic, biodegradable materials. 18. RECYCLE WASTE MATERIALS As explained by the Stanford Recycling Center, each American throws away 7 1/2 lbs. of garbage. Garbage requires land fills, which takes up large amounts of land. 19. USE ORGANICS PRODUCTS Buy organics products, especially organic cleaners, pesticides, insecticides and fertilizers. The advantage of using organic products is that they are biodegradable and friendly to the environment. 20. GROW MORE TREES Initiative should be taken to grow more trees. Researches show that trees can actually fertilize the soil. This means that by growing trees, soil will become fertile, agriculture will get boosted and land pollution will greatly reduce. 21. PROPER WASTE MANAGEMENT Excessive littering is one of most common reasons for land pollution. Take initiative to inform others about the harmful effects of littering. Organic wastes must be disposed of in areas that are far from human or animal habitation. Waste like plastic, metals, glass and paper must be recycled and reused. Find land far away from natural environments to dump wastes that cannot be disposed of and are essential to industrial processes. 22. IMPROVE FERTILITY OF THE LAND BY REFORESTING Soil in forested lands are far more fertile than soil without trees, suggesting that trees have the ability to fertilize land. 23. COMPOST GARDEN AND KITCHEN WASTE 24. SOME MORE Both individuals and authorities have to make positive changes in the way they conduct things. Spreading awareness, amongst the common people, to use organic, biodegradable products and to efficiently use resources, should be taken up seriously by the government. The industries too should follow proper procedures of industrial waste disposal. In addition to this, trees should be saved and more plants should be grown. All these initiatives are mandatory for any project on the prevention of land pollution, to be successful. 25. CASE STUDY 26. More than 50 per cent of the countrys land area falls under some degree and/or category of degradation. Even the land under cultivation is substantially degraded and as estimated by the National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) and Forest Survey of India (FSI), about 60 percent of the total cultivated area suffers from some form of degradation. While in India, about 48 per cent and 44 per cent of all canal command area is water logged and saline, in Maharashtra, these figures are as high as 88 percent and above 95 per cent, respectively. The Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR) has been extended to cover Thane, Kalyan, Bhiwandi, Ulhasnagar and Vasai tehsils of Raigad district in order to overcome population pressure. Land Acquisition The GoM has an extensive programme of land acquisition for industry, airports, expressways, ports, tourist resorts and offers liberal package of concessions to multinational and Indian companies in some parts of Thane and Raigad districts. MIDC has so far acquired more than 35000 hectares of land over 200 locations. Wasteland Pune has the major share of area under wasteland. Also, in Thane about 66 percent of the land is affected by alkalinity. As NWIP survey (2002), the extent of wastelands in the State is estimated at 70.53 lakh ha, of which, community lands account for 28.73 lakh ha, private lands 24 lakh ha, and degraded forests 17.8 lakh ha. A satellite based survey by the Maharashtra Remote Sensing Applications Centre, estimated non-forest wastelands at 51.15 lakh. 27. Land Utilisation in Maharashtra (2002 - 03) 4.49% 4.86%Net Area Sown 7.98% Forest LandBarren, Uncultivable and Culturable Waste Land8.57%Current and other Fallow Land 57.15% Permanent, Pastures, Grazing Land and Land under Misc. tree, crops and grooves Land put to Non-Agriclutral uses16.95% 28. Impact of Land Degradation In addition, in Maharashtra large diversion of lands from agricultural sector and forests area to non-agricultural uses affects overall growth and productivity of the agricultural sector. For example, the district of Chandrapur is endowed with very good fertile natural resources, but anthropogenic activities have led to soil erosion, excessive land degradation, diminishing soil fertility, low agricultural production and degradation of forests in this area. Increasing gravel and stone quarry has led to accelerated soil erosion because of the loss of the topsoil nutrient, which is required to maintain vegetation cover. 29. STEPS TAKEN The Central and State Governments have initiated several programmes and schemes to check the land degradation. These include centrally sponsored the Integrated Wastelands Development Programme (IWDP), the Draught Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) and National Watershed Development Project For Rainfed Areas (NWDPRA). In addition, rehabilitation of degraded lands is also covered under the state sector Integrated Wasteland Development Programme (IWDP) and EAS. As per the requirements of MoEF(Ministry of environment and forests), GoI, MCGM(municipal corporation of greater Mumbai) has carried out compensatory mangrove plantation on a 40-hectare area, which is identified as suitable coastal area for such plantations by BNHS(Bombay Natural History Society). The NMMC (navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation) has planned to assess the feasibility of using abandoned quarries for rainwater harvesting; planting trees for restoration of land under abandoned quarries and implement better handling operational f