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  • Land Policy Reform for Agricultural Transformation in India


    National Background Paper Submitted to World Bank, Washington DC

    Submitted by NRMC Centre for Land Governance Bhubaneswar

  • Abbreviations

    CM Cadastral Map DAY Deendayal Antodaya Yojana DBT Direct Benefit Transfer DFI Doubling Farm Income DILRMP Digital India Land Record Modernization Program DoLR Department of Land Resources FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FRA Forest Rights Act, 2005 GoAP Government of Andhra Pradesh GOI Government of India GOO Government of Odisha ICAR Indian Council of Agriculture Research IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute IRMA Institute of Rural Management, Anand JLG Joint Liability Group KALIA Krushak Assistance for Livelihoods and Income Augmentation MKSP Mahila Kisan Shashaktikaran Pariyojana MoRD Ministry of Rural Development NLRMP National Land Record Modernization Program NREGA National Rural Employment Guarantee Act NRETP National Rural Economic Transformation Project NRLM National Rural Livelihoods Mission NSSO National Sample Survey Organization NTFP Non-Timber Forest Products OBC Other Backward Caste PM KISAN Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi RFCTLARR Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition,

    Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013. RKVY Rashtriya Krishi Vikash Yojana RoR Right of Records RTC Right of Records, Tenancy and Cultivation SC Scheduled Caste SDG Sustainable Development Goal SHG Self Help Group SMART State of Maharashtra's Agri-business and Rural Transformation

    Program ST Scheduled Tribe

  • Contents 1. Executive Summary _____________________________________________________ 1

    2. Introduction __________________________________________________________ 11

    2.1. Study Background _______________________________________________________ 11

    2.2. Overview of Study _______________________________________________________ 13

    2.3. Specific Objectives of this Report ___________________________________________ 14

    3. Updated Land Tenancy Analysis __________________________________________ 15

    3.1. Land Redistributive Reform, Tenancy and Indian Agriculture ____________________ 15

    3.2. Tenancy Trends and Patterns ______________________________________________ 16

    3.3. Impacts of Tenancy on Indian Agriculture and Farmers _________________________ 19

    3.4. Move Towards Land Leasing Policy Reform ___________________________________ 20

    3.5. State Government Initiatives - Taking Cues from the NITI Aayog Model Act ________ 24

    3.6. Land Leasing Reform: Critiques ____________________________________________ 29

    3.7. Land Leasing Reform: Future Directions _____________________________________ 33

    3.8. Land Record Reform _____________________________________________________ 41

    4. The State of Women and Dalit Farmers’ Land Rights in India ___________________ 45

    4.1. State of Women Farmers and Land Rights in India _____________________________ 45

    4.2. Dalit Farmers and Land Rights _____________________________________________ 49

    5. Inclusion of Tenants and Women Farmers in Agriculture and Rural Development Schemes __________________________________________________________________ 51

    5.1 PM KISAN ______________________________________________________________ 51 5.1.1 PM KISAN in Maharashtra ______________________________________________________ 53 5.1.2 Why PM-KISAN needs comprehensive, up-to-date land rights data to succeed _____________ 56

    5.2 National Rural Livelihoods Mission – NRLM __________________________________ 57 5.2.1 MKSP Coverage and Odisha _____________________________________________________ 57 5.2.2 Why women need stronger land rights to fully realize the objectives of NRLM/MKSP? ______ 58

    5.3 KALIA, ODISHA __________________________________________________________ 60 5.3.1 Inclusion of sharecroppers and the landless in KALIA _________________________________ 65

    5.4 Rythu Bandhu __________________________________________________________ 66 5.4.1 Inclusion and Equity of the Rythu Bandhu Scheme ___________________________________ 68

    5.5 Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY) __________________________________ 69

    6. Conclusion ____________________________________________________________ 75

    7. Reference: ____________________________________________________________ 79

  • Table of Tables Table 1: Summary of Tenancy provisions in Historical Land Reform laws in States at a glance ___________ 16 Table 2 Provisions of Land Leasing Reform Laws in Indian States ___________________________________ 25 Table 3: Tenancy relations across Farming Contexts in India ______________________________________ 36 Table 4 Progress of DILRMP (as of November, 2019) _____________________________________________ 43 Table 5: Different State government schemes similar to PM-KISAN _________________________________ 53 Table 6: Target Groups and Assistance under KALIA _____________________________________________ 61 Table 7: Innovations in KALIA _______________________________________________________________ 62 Table 8 : Government databases used to identify KALIA beneficiaries _______________________________ 63 Table 9: A comparative assessment of Flagship Agriculture and Rural Development Schemes ___________ 71 Table of Figures Figure 1: Matrix of Current Tenancy Patterns and Policy Options for Leasing Reform __________________ 34 Table of Boxes Box 1 : Model Agriculture Land Leasing Act 2016: Key Highlights __________________________________ 23 Box 2: Pattern of Tenancy Contexts and Relations that Inform Leasing Reform Policy Direction __________ 35 Box 3: Predominant types of textual land records in India ________________________________________ 42 Box 4: Unfinished Agenda of DILRMP: Still Miles to Go ___________________________________________ 44 Box 5: Updating Land Records by training SHG: Landesa Women Land Rights Initiative ________________ 47 Box 6: How many farmers are in India? The Number Jumble Continues without a Proper Land Tenure ____ 55 Box 7: Data Journey behind KALIA ___________________________________________________________ 65 Box 8: Land Record Updating in Record Time: Lessons from Telangana _____________________________ 67

  • Land Policy Reform for Agricultural Transformation in India National Background Paper


    1. Executive Summary 1 The National Background Paper (NBP) is an initial product of a World Bank supported ongoing

    research study on land policy reform for agricultural transformation. It provides an overview of agricultural tenancy contexts in India along with an updated analysis of land leasing reforms carried out by states as a follow up to the Model Land Leasing Act that NITI Aayog drafted in 2016. This paper assesses the inclusion of tenants, women, and Dalits in the land redistribution and tenancy reform processes, as well as in major agricultural and rural development schemes by the Central and State Governments in India.

    2 The objective is to generate a nuanced appreciation of the tenure contexts and tenancy relations in India, manifested as a result of its complex legal-institutional frameworks around land and related factors. It is hoped that a better understanding of de facto land tenure patterns and their interaction with de jure provisions, welfare interventions, and social innovations will positively inform further policy reform and initiatives to scale up inclusive agricultural transformation in India. Intensive focus states for this research include Odisha and Maharashtra, along with less intensive coverage of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh.

    3 In pursuit of the above, the study scope includes assessment of current land leasing reform policies and laws, critical analysis of agricultural and rural development schemes from the perspective of inclusion of tenants, documentation of innovations to improve land access, analysis of land tenure impacts on selected projects financed by the World Bank, and recommendations of institutional/legal reforms and promising interventions at multiple levels to secure land tenure, especially in the interest of vulnerable groups, like tenant farmers, women, and dalits.

    4 The NBP has four sections. The introductory section (Section 1) provides an overview of the study including context, objective, and scope. Section 2 presents an updated land tenancy analysis, covering historical redistributive land reforms and their impact on contemporary tenancy arrangements, tenancy trends and patterns, and their impact on farmers and farming. India’s actions towards land leasing reform and the follow up actions by some states are also elaborated, including the status of these reforms and their implications; future directions for further land leasing reforms are outlined. In appreciation of the importance of recording of tenure, this section also highlights the status of and issues around India’s land record modernization initiatives. Section 3 focuses on the inclusion of women and Dalits in Indian agriculture from the perspective of land tenure, providing insights into relevant policies, issues, and initiatives. The last section reviews select agriculture and rural development schemes by the Government of India and Indian states with respect to inclusion of tenants and women, given their limited access to land records.

    5 India is try