LADDERS & SCAFFOLDS Basic Information & Safe Use (Based on OSHA 29 CFR 1910.25-29 &...
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Walking and Working Surfaces
LADDERS & SCAFFOLDS Basic Information & Safe Use
(Based on OSHA 29 CFR 1910.25-29 & 1926.451&1926.1053)
Bureau of Workers CompPA Training for Health & Safety(PATHS) 1PPT-023-03*1Selecting a LadderLadders are manufactured for a specific use; e.g., jobs that can be safely performed with step ladders could become dangerous if extension ladders are used instead. You must evaluate the work environment and know what ladders are available before you can choose the right ladder for the job. Keep in mind all potential hazards: electricity uneven surfaces people and materials overhead obstructions
PPT-023-032Selecting a LadderYou must keep in mind the physical requirements of the job: How much room will there be to position the ladder? How much weight combining the user, tools, and materials will be on the ladder? How long should the ladder be to safely perform the job?
PPT-023-033Duty Rating A ladder duty rating tells you its maximum weight capacity. There are four categories of the duty ratings: Type IA These ladders have a duty rating of 300 pounds. Type IA ladders are recommended for extra-heavy-duty industrial use. Type I These ladders have a duty rating of 250 pounds. Type I ladders are manufactured for heavy-duty use. Type II These ladders have a duty rating of 225 pounds. Type II ladders are approved for medium-duty use. Type III These ladders have a duty rating of 200 pounds. Type III ladders are rated for light-duty use.
PPT-023-034Portable LaddersFree from sharp edges, splinters, wane and decay
Step ladders Type I = 3 to 20 feet Type II = 3 to 12 feet Type III = 3 to 6 feet
Have a metal spreader or locking device
5PPT-023-03*5Portable stepladders are not longer than 20 feet.
Type I stepladder is an industrial stepladder. It has a length of 3 to 20 feet and is used for heavy duty work, such as utilities, contractors, or industrial use.
Type II stepladder is a commercial ladder. It has a length of 3 to 12 feet, and is used for medium duty chores. These could include painting, office duties, and light industrial duties.
Type III stepladder is a household ladder. It has a length of 3 t o 6 feet and is typically used for light duties. These could include changing light bulbs, etc. These ladders are never to be used in industry. Portable Ladders Single/Straight ladder 30 feet or less
Extension ladder 60 feet or less
Painters ladder 12 feet or less
6PPT-023-03*6The length of a stepladder is measured by the length of the front rail. To be classified as a standard length ladder, the measured length must be within plus or minus one-half inch of the specified length.Stepladders must not exceed 20 feet.The bottom four rails are to be supplied with an insulating non-slip material for the safety of the user. Metal ladders conduct electricity.
Care and Maintenance of LaddersLadders must be maintained in good condition at all times:joints must be tightmetal bearings of lock, wheels, pulleys, etc., must be lubricatedfrayed or badly worn rope must be replacedsafety feet and other auxiliary equipment must be in good conditionLadders must be inspected frequently7PPT-023-03*7If a ladder is involved in the following, it must be immediately inspected;If a ladder tips over, inspect the side rails for dents or bends, or excessively dented rungs; check all rung-to-side-rail connections; check hardware connections; check rivets for shear.If ladders are exposed to oil and grease, equipment should be cleaned of oil, grease for slippery materials. This can be done with a solvent or steam cleaning.
Portable ladders are designed as a one-man working ladder based on a 200-pound load.
The ladder base section must be placed with a secure footing.Inspecting LaddersRecommended before each use:Check for broken, split, cracked, corroded or missing rungs and side railsCheck carefully for cracks (hard to see; cracks weaken ladders)Check for rungs or side rails with excessive bends (bent areas are greatly weakened and may fail during use)Check for loose, corroded or weakened fasteners and hardware
8PPT-023-03Inspecting LaddersCheck ladders for missing or damaged feet (ladder feet may have both non-skid pads for hard surfaces and metal feet for soft surfaces)Check for paint or other coating hiding defects (wooden ladders shall not be painted or coated with any opaque covering except for identification or warning labels placed on one face only of a side rail) Painted aluminum, fiberglass ladders = very hard to observe defects/damage
9PPT-023-03Inspecting LaddersCheck for oil, grease, moisture or other slippery materials before use and clean as necessary
Check capacity label and make sure ladder has sufficient capacity to hold you and everything you are wearing/carrying
10PPT-023-03Safe Use of LaddersMake sure the ladder is strong enough and long enough for the job
Carefully inspect your ladder before you use it
Place the ladder on a firm, level surface with its feet parallel to the wall it is resting against
When ascending or descending, the climber must face the ladder
11PPT-023-03*11Safe Use of Ladders Any Safety Issues Here?
Bracket Bent & Shelf MissingRail Bent12PPT-023-03Setting Up a Ladder SafelyNo ladder should be used to gain access unless it extends 3 feet above the point of support
Your ladder must be tied off or placed to prevent slipping
When setting a ladder against a wall use the 4-to-1 ladder rule
13PPT-023-03*13Safe Ladder Set Up
14PPT-023-03Safe Ladder Set Up Determine Climbing Angle
15PPT-023-03Ladder Safety PrecautionsLadders that have defects or are in need of repair must be removed from service
Shorter ladders must not be spliced together to make one big ladder
Rungs must be kept free from grease
16PPT-023-03*16Fixed LaddersThe minimum design live load must be a single concentrated load of 200 poundsAll metal ladders and appurtenances must be paintedRungs, cleats and steps must be kept free of splinters, sharp edges or burrs
17PPT-023-03*17All ladders, appurtenances and fastenings must be designed to meet load requirements. The minimum design must be a single concentrated load of 200 pounds. The number and position of additional concentrated live-load units of 200 pounds each to be determined from the anticipated usage of the ladder shall be considered in the design.
The weight of the ladder and attached appurtenances together with the live-load must be considered in the design of the rails and fastenings.
Rungs and cleats shall have a minimum diameter of 3/4-inch for metal ladders and 1 1/8 inch for wood ladders.
The distance between rungs, cleats, and steps shall not exceed 12 inches and must be uniform throughout the length of the ladder. The minimum clear length of rungs or cleats shall be 16 inches. The rungs of an individual-rung ladder shall be so designed that the foot cannot slide off the end.
Rungs, cleats, and steps must be kept free of splinters, sharp edges, burrs, or projections which may be a hazard.Offset Fixed LaddersWhen ladders extend to heights exceeding 20 feet, landing platforms must be provided for each 30 feet of height
All platforms shall be equipped with the standard railings and toeboards
18PPT-023-03*18When ladders extend to heights exceeding 20 feet (except on chimneys), landing platforms must be provided for each 30 feet of height or fraction thereof, except that, where no cage, well, or ladder safety device is provided, landing platforms shall be provided for each 20 feet of height or fraction thereof. Each ladder section shall be offset from adjacent sections. Where installation requires that adjacent sections be offset, landing platforms shall be provided at each offset. Where a man has to step a distance greater than 12 inches from the centerline of the rung of a ladder, a landing platform must be provided.
All landing platforms must be equipped with standard railings and toeboards, and so arranged as to give safe access to the ladder. Platforms shall not be less than 24 inches in width and 30 inches in length.
One rung of any section of the ladder shall be located at the level of the landing laterally served by the ladder.Pitch of Fixed LaddersThe preferred pitch of fixed ladders is considered to come in the range of 75 and 90 degrees with the horizontal
Substandard pitch is within the range of 60 and 75 degrees
19PPT-023-03*19The preferred pitch of ladders shall be considered to come in the range of 75 degrees and 90 degrees with the horizontal.
Fixed ladders shall be considered substandard if they are installed within the substandard pitch range of 60 degrees and 90 degrees with the horizontal. Ladders having a pitch in excess of 90 degrees with the horizontal are prohibited.
All ladders (fixed or not) shall be maintained in a safe condition. All ladders must be inspected regularly.Ladders and ElectricityMetal ladders conduct electricity
Use care when placing
20PPT-023-03*20Great care should be taken for metal ladders around electricity.ScaffoldingDesigned by qualified person and built loaded to design
Footing or anchorage of scaffolds must be sound, rigid, and capable of carrying the maximum intended load without displacement
Must be capable of supporting at least 4 times the maximum intended load
21PPT-023-03*21Designed by qualified person and