Lachlan Ancient Civil

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  • 8/14/2019 Lachlan Ancient Civil


  • 8/14/2019 Lachlan Ancient Civil


  • 8/14/2019 Lachlan Ancient Civil


    ANCIENT CIVILIZATIONSAncient civilizations are a group of people

    who lived in the past and who had things likeAgriculture and writing and sports. They alsohad culture and religion and technology.

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    Ancient Egypt survived between 3100BC to30BC.They used hieroglyphics to communicateand keep track of things. Hieroglyphics weremade up of about 750 signs. Here is a pictureof hieroglyphics.

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    Boats were a big part of both travel and trade in Ancient Egyptbecause of the Nile River. There were many different kinds ofboats, but the first boats were made of papyrus reeds. The reedswere bound with papyrus rope, which is made from reed fibers.

    This boat wasnt in style forever. By 3200 BC, timber was beingimported from Lebanon to build wooden ships instead.

    They had ferries so people without boats could cross the Nile.These ferries carried people and goods across and along theriver. Royal boats allowed the pharaoh and his family to ride instyle. A huge canopy protected the royal family from the sun andpeople staring at them. The Egyptians even had cattle boats.

    These boats had wide flat decks for the cattle. The farmers woulddo almost anything to protect their cattle because their cattle waswhere most of their money came from.

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    The best way the ancient Egyptians knew howto preserve a body was to mummify it. Thepoor placed the bodies of their dead relatives

    out in the sun, in the desert sand. The bodiesmummified naturally. Anyone who couldafford it went to a professional mummymaker. People wanted to look their best in

    their afterlife.

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    The Egyptian climate with its hot summers and mildwinters favored light clothing made from plant fibers,predominantly linen and in Roman times occasionallycotton, an import from India. Wool was used to a

    lesser extent [, and seldom by Egyptians proper.Small amounts of silk were traded to the easternMediterranean possibly as early as the second half ofthe second millennium BCE and traces of silk havebeen found in Egyptian tombs [ Animal skins, aboveall leopard skins, were sometimes worn by priests and

    by pharaohs in their role as first servants of the god.Such outfits were found in Tutankhamen's tomb andwere depicted quite frequently on the walls of tombs.At times kings and queens wore decorativeceremonial clothing adorned with feathers.

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    During Egypt's Old Kingdom (time line), the pharaohs established astable central government in the fertile Nile Valley. Perhaps thegreatest testaments to their power were the pyramids and othertombs built to shelter them in the afterlife. Ancient Egyptiansbelieved that when the pharaoh died, he became Osiris,

    king of the dead. The new pharaoh became Horus, god ofthe heavens and protector of the sun god. This cycle wassymbolized by the rising and setting of the sun.Some partof a dead pharaoh's spirit, called his ka, was believed toremain with his body. And it was thought that if the corpsedid not have proper care, the former pharaoh would not beable to carry out his new duties as king of the dead. If thishappened, the cycle would be broken and disaster wouldbefall Egypt.To prevent such a catastrophe, each deadpharaoh was mummified, which preserved his body.Everything the king would need in his afterlife wasprovided in his gravevessels made of clay, stone, andgold, furniture, food, even doll-like representations ofservants, known as ushabti. His body would continue toreceive food offerings long after his death.

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