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Korea Emerges. October 15, 2013. Review. What is the difference between an aristocrat and a bureaucrat? What sort of government did Tang China have? What was the relationship of Tang China to Tibet? What was the relationship of Tang China with Silla and Balhae / Parhae ( Bohai )?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Transcript of Korea Emerges

  • Korea EmergesOctober 15, 2013

  • ReviewWhat is the difference between an aristocrat and a bureaucrat? What sort of government did Tang China have? What was the relationship of Tang China to Tibet?What was the relationship of Tang China with Silla and Balhae/Parhae (Bohai)?

  • Prehistoric KoreaHongshan culture in the Liaodong area--more in common with cultures farther south than with those on the Korean peninsula. Had oracle bones, jade carvings, and tripods. 3,500 BCECord-pattern pottery (Jeulmun) 6,000-2,000 BCE consumed millet and rice, though we are not sure when they domesticated it.Undecorated pottery (Mumun) 2,000 ---200 BCE clearly neolithic. Characterized in its last centuries by rice cultivation, bronze daggers, and dolmen burials. Two foundation myths, Gija and Tangun. Neither has any archaeological support.

  • The origins of KoreaMythical Origins: Gija (a Chinese official who moved to Korea after the fall of the Shang) or Tangun/Dangun (the son of a bear and a heavenly spirit)Nangnang (Lelang) and the introduction of organized government on the Korean peninsula. (There is no evidence of an organized government before the Han established their outpost)Three kingdoms appear after the fall of the Han: Goguryeo/Kogury in the north, Baekje/Paekche in the southwest, and Silla in the southeast. (Some add Gaya/Kaya as a 4th kingdom.)

  • Old Chosn [Gojoseon]Is there any archaeological evidence for a kingdom in Korea before the arrival of the Han Chinese?What is the difference between a kingdom, on the one hand, and a tribal federation, a chiefdom, and small polity, on the other? Can we trust accounts of Old Chosn (Gojoseon) written over a thousand years later? What do Han dynasty accounts tell us about Korea 2,100 years ago?

  • The 4 Han Commandariesafter 108 BCE, Han established four outposts in Northeast Asia. Three lasted only a few decades. One (Lelang [Nangnang]) lasted for over 4 centuries. (Tai-fang appeared later) Was therenationalistic resistance? There were Goguryeo raids on an outpost in Manchuria, but they shouldnt be called nationalistic. Why is there debate over whether those commandaries existed or not?

  • Korea 1,900 years agohttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buyeo_kingdom

  • Korea 1,500 years ago


    Was Goguryeo/Kogury a Korean kingdom?Was Buyeo/Puy Korean?

  • Debate over GoguryeoChinese started insisting about a decade ago that Goguryeo was part of China.Koreans insist that it was a Korean kingdom.Both are mistaken. It clearly was not part of China either politically or culturally.But to call it Korean is anachronistic, since there was no Korea at that time. However, since it played a large role in the construction of what became Korea, a much bigger role than it played in Chinese history, it is acceptable to include it in a history of Korea.

  • Korean-Japanese RelationsThe Gaya Confederation, the Wa, and YamatoIt is likely that the peoples of Gaya and the Wa of western Japan (Kyushu) were related. They were not under one government, but may have been one people.There is much archaeological evidence of Gaya influence on western Japan before the 6th century. What did Korea give Japan? First, rice, iron, and bronze. Later, Buddhism, Chinese writing, medicine, math, and the social structure of Yamato Japan (hereditary occupations and status). Horse-riding came from Korea as well.

  • Silla KoreaChinas Sui dynasty went broke trying to conquer Goguryeo (p.105) Tang joined forced with Silla to defeat Baekje and Goguryeo in the late 7th century. (p. 105-6) Its rivals defeated, Silla governed the bottom 2/3rds of the peninsula. Balhae/ Parhae (Bohai) was in the north. (p. 110-1)Silla was Buddhist kingdom ruled by an aristocracy of mostly warriors. (106-7)Adopted some elements of Chinese culture, including writing. Can we call Silla Unified Silla? North Koreans say no, South Koreans say yes

  • Silla and Balhae/Parhae


  • Silla Art

    http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/736For a glimpse of Seokguram GrottoFor a glimpse of Silla arthttp://www.museum.go.kr/program/place/placeListEng.jsp?menuID=002002001001&placeIDCon=23

  • Was Palhae Korean? Chinese and Koreans have the same debate over Balhae they have over Goguryeo. But, just as with Goguryeo, we should reject any claim that Balhae was part of China. At the same time, we should refrain from calling it Korean. It was simply Balhae, a kingdom that was never part of China but contributed to the formation of what became Korea.

  • Early Korean Religion p. 107shamanism---shamans in Korea are people (usually women) who become possessed by the spirits of the recently dead or of heroes from long ago.Buddhism --Korea adopted Mahayana Buddhism from ChinaWonhyo/Wnhyo was a particularly famous Korean monk. (p. 108)Korea did not adopt Daoist religion. Koreans also used Confucianism to run their governments.

  • Korean History in motionGo to http://www.timemap.net/epublications/2002_animations/2002_shilla_animation.swfWhy is Nangnang (Lelang) not on this map designed by Korean historians? Why does the map claim that Tsushima was part of Silla until Japan seized it in 500? (There was no central Japanese government in 500 to claim authority over Tsushima!)